"ASSURANCE? OR PRESUMPTION?"
Second Corinthians 13.5
1. Turn in your Bible to Second Corinthians
13.5. Once you have found that verse please stand for the reading of
Godís Word. My text is the first sentence of the verse: "Examine
yourselves, whether ye be in the faith; prove your own selves."
2. Last Sunday morning I presented to you an
adapted sermon, authored by Anthony Burgess, that dealt with the issue of
unconverted people having strong feelings and even experiences of the Holy
Spirit dealing with them in various ways, thus causing them to wrongly
conclude that they are genuinely converted.
3. This morning I bring to you yet another
edited and contemporized Burgess sermon, that considers the characteristic
differences between assurance of salvation and presumption of salvation.
Do you have assurance of salvation? Or are you presuming to be saved?
4. You can imagine how great the delusion
must be and how tragic the madness must be that enables a man or a woman
to have a false persuasion concerning his or her salvation, presuming to
be truly converted, presuming the state of your soul to be sound and
godly, when it is quite the contrary.
5. Yet the great majority of those who call
themselves Christians are overwhelmed by such a carnal confidence. How
else can we explain a 1996 survey of American adults in which 84% of those
claiming to be born again held non-biblical views on important matters.
Half of them deny that Satan is a real being, 39% of them state that you
get to heaven by doing good deeds, 30% deny that Jesus rose from the dead
on the third day, 29% of them believe that Jesus committed sins, and 37%
do not believe Hell to be an actual place! 
6. As well, such godly patriarchs of the
recent past as R. G. Lee and W. A. Criswell publicly stated that 80% and
75%, respectively, of the members of Gospel preaching Churches are not
converted and they did not expect to see them in heaven.
7. On top of this, Dr. Monroe
"Monk" Parker, a now deceased preacher who was once called
"The Dean of American Evangelists, once said, "If we could get
half the church members saved, we would see a great revival. In fact, I
think if we could get half of the preachers in America converted, we would
see a mighty revival." 
8. How many people are there who, when they
hear the clear and direct pronouncements of Godís Word, that declare
them to be devoid of Godís saving grace, which show them that in their
present condition they are shut out of His kingdom, do yet bless
themselves and are ready to sing "It is well with my soul"?
9. It is therefore worthwhile and necessary
to ransack such false evidences as people are prone to comfort themselves
with. And as it is wise for a miner to secure the services of an assayer
to discern in his ore between dross and gold, and as it is wise for the
bee keeper to distinguish between gall and honey, so must a conscientious
minister of the Gospel discover in peopleís lives what is of the flesh
and what is of the Spirit.
10. Consider six differences that distinguish
real assurance of salvation from groundless presumption.
1A. First, THERE IS AN ENTIRELY DIFFERENT
PRINCIPLE OPERATING TO PRODUCE ASSURANCE THAN THAT WHICH PRODUCES
Although causes of assurance and
presumption are both like the root that is under the ground, not so very
visible, the root of the one does make a difference from the root of the
Assurance is a fruit whose root is in
heaven. The Spirit of God instills assurance in two ways, by
enlightening or revealing, and by adopting or confirming in the
believerís heart a child-of-Godís-affections for the Father.
Carnal presumption is different altogether,
being like a weed that grows in the mud puddle mire of an unsaved
personís deceived and deceitful heart.
Let me tell you some of the ways this
presumption about a personís salvation develops.
1B. First, There Is An Ignorance With An
Inexperienced Appreciation Of The Depth Of Sin, And Of Sinís Great
1C. Those who wrongly presume to be saved
have never yet, as did the apostle Paul, found the Law alive, Romans
7, and themselves dead. They have not seen the great abominations of
their depraved nature, the foulness of their sinfulness, the purity of
the Law, or the exactness of Godís justice. And because they lack
these discoveries and apprehensions, they come quickly to be persuaded
that everything is well with them when it is not.
2C. This was Paulís experience. He
thought himself to be spiritually alive and right with God before
those thoughts came to him, Romans 7.9: "For I was alive without
the law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I
died." He had such great confidence in himself. And was not this
the state of the Pharisees who justified themselves, and the Jews who
trusted in their own righteousness?
3C. Not that there was any good reason
for them to have such confidence. But they were blind and ignorant,
not knowing themselves, like those of Laodicea, who thought themselves
rich and full, when they were actually poor and miserable and blind
and naked, Revelation 3.17.
4C. The presumption of unregenerate men,
then, arises from the stupidity and blindness in them, whereas the
godly assurance of those who are truly converted is the result of the
Spirit of God graciously illuminating them about the height, the
depth, and the breadth of sin, and making them feel the weight and
burden of sin.
5C. Are you one of those who presumes to
love God, and rests in the goodness of your own heart? Know that, if
you were acquainted with all the wounds sin has inflicted on you, if
your eyes were opened to perceive the filthiness and vileness of your
nature and your ways, you would sit like Job on a dunghill, abhorring
and loathing yourself.
6C. That you do not perceive your own
filthiness, that you are seemingly unaware of your own wickedness, is
a cause of great concern.
2B. Another Internal Cause Is
Self-Love Instead Of Love For God.
1C. Thatís the spiderís web wrapped
so tightly about you that it entangles you. It is your self-love, you
see, that you use to flatter yourself, making everything to be good in
you, and to be of God in you, though you are in actuality altogether
fleshly and carnal.
2C. Proverbs 16.2 declares to us that,
"All the ways of a man are clean in his own eyes; but the
LORD weigheth the spirits." That person who
excuses himself to himself and who acquits himself to himself, accuses
himself to God.
3C. Was this not the problem that reached
epidemic proportions among the Jewish people? What Old Testament
prophet comes to mind who could persuade his people that their hearts
were not right with God? Who of them succeeded in persuading the
Jewish people not to be in such love with themselves instead of God?
Not one of them was able.
4C. In light of that, are you really so
persuaded that your soul stands in good stead? Do you praise God for
your good heart and for your godly affections? On what basis do you
conclude that you have a good heart? And what are your reasons for
thinking your affections are godly? Are you sure you are not guilty of
self-flattery and a fleshly love of yourself?
5C. If you were diligent in really
observing yourself, you might discover this to be the real cause, not
of spiritual assurance, but of carnal presumption. Godly assurance, on
the other hand, arises from an utter disapproval and loathing of
2A. A SECOND VAST DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN ASSURANCE AND PRESUMPTION HAS TO DO WITH MOTIVES AND GROUNDS
Godly assurance is from and
through the Word of God. That which is the means of our regeneration,
James 1.18, is also the means of our assurance, Romans 15.14, that we
through the Scriptures might have comfort. Vain presumption, on the
other hand, comes from wrong motives.
Three thoughts will convince you
1B. First, Think About The
Difference Between Presumption Coming From Human Logic And Reasoning
About A Personís Spiritual Condition, Versus A Real Assurance That
Comes From The Light Of The Spirit Shining In Godís Word.
1C. Folks, Godís work of
grace in a personís heart can be no more discerned by the natural
light of human reasoning and intellect than your sense of touch can
recognize and deal with the workings of logic and reason. You canít
work out math problems by your sense of touch. Neither can you arrive
at real assurance of salvation by human logic and intelligence.
2C. We see a clear illustration
of this with Nicodemus in John chapter 3. What a dullard he was about
the work of regeneration. This master of Israel could not comprehend
the new birth. Yet this is how so-called Christians acquire what they
think is assurance, but which is actually presumption. They are
grossly mistaken about the work of grace and what it is.
3C. Do not many so-called
Christians think this thing called godliness is consistent with their
own frequent sins, their own continual lack of personal piety, and
their daily neglect of holy duties? How many say they have a good
heart, even though they have bad tongues and worse lives?
4C. Even you who are not as bad
as that still fool yourselves. You think because you are somewhat
moral, are void of scandal, and donít drink or carouse anymore, you
are therefore converted. And because you have minimized your faults,
though you have no positive Christian characteristics whatsoever, you
have therefore persuaded yourself that you are converted.
5C. It gets even worse than
that. Some of you wrongly assume that because you were once under
conviction, or because the Holy Spirit has illuminated your
understanding about something, or because you have picked up an
insight from listening to preaching, that you must necessarily be
saved. No. You are in error.
6C. How easy is it to be
deceived in one of these ways and, like the foolish virgins in Matthew
25, you will die confidently and boldly go to meet the Bridegroom
having no oil. Make very sure that your confidence about your
assurance of salvation is not an absolute mistake about the nature and
workings of Godís grace.
2B. Next, Think About Another
Difference Between The Basis Of Godly Assurance And Presumption.
Assurance comes not from any
worth, merit or perfection that we find in ourselves. It comes from
the truth about Godís grace and the reality of sins being washed
away by the blood of Christ.
1C. This is how Paul, though he
knew nothing by himself, yet he was not thereby justified, First
Corinthians 4.4. But listen carefully to the typical evangelical
Christian. His speech shows that his hope actually comes partly from
the merits of Christ and partly from his own merits. Thus, the average
evangelical has no real assurance, only a bold presumption.
2C. Understand that the child
of God does not pretend that assurance comes from a full and perfect
obedience to Godís Law. On the contrary, we know that such an
obedience is not possible in this lifetime. But a believer can
be properly persuaded that his heart is right toward God.
3C. Evangelical Christians, on
the other hand, show that their belief system is strongly arrayed against
a Scriptural notion of assurance of salvation, because they have no
reliance upon the Bible as the sole source of spiritual truth. And no
one who refuses Scriptural guidelines for coming to Christ will then
adhere to Scriptural guidelines for assurance of salvation. Thus, only
presumption is left to him as the basis for erroneous confidence that
he is a Christian.
3B. Third, Many People Develop
Their Carnal Presumption From The Outward Comforts And Prosperity That
They Enjoy. Not So With Assurance.
1C. The presumptuous tend to
look upon their prosperity, their well-behaved children, the honors
they receive, as so many testimonies of Godís love to them and as
convincing arguments that they are being rewarded by God. Because the
Bible so has many promises for those who walk in Godís ways, they
who find themselves enjoying such advantages therefore conclude that
they are good Christians and that God is pleased with them.
2C. But Godís Word, rightly
divided, does not say what many people think it says. The Bible
declares that the prosperous person stands in slippery places, and
that his prosperity may become a snare unto him, increasing both his
sin and his torment. Solomon wrote, "Riches kept for the owners
thereof to their hurt," Ecclesiastes 5.13. So, riches can
actually harm a person.
3C. This is not to say that
there is no assurance of salvation, but only that assurance of
salvation does not come by outward benefits and circumstances. As is
illustrated in Luke 16.25, where we read about the rich man and poor
Lazarus. Abraham said to the now dead rich man in Hell, "Son,
remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and
likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is comforted, and thou art
4C. Not dependent upon
circumstances, genuine assurance of salvation is most powerful and
operative in all kinds of distresses and miseries. You see it in David
in some of the Psalms he wrote, how confident he was in God, though
all outward circumstances were against him. And Paul, when facing
execution in Rome, was greatly encouraged in his soul.
5C. But carnal confidence
vanishes in times of distress. The presumptuous person rants and
raves, not knowing what to do. When the whole world is coming down
around you, then ask yourself what bears up your heart and keeps up
your spirit. Is it your wealth? Your status?
6C. Consider, beloved, how many
times God has bestowed prosperity and status on those He hates. If
status and wealth determine true happiness then Christ was not happy,
Who became poor that we might be rich.
7C. It was well observed by
Augustine that God gives riches sometimes to wicked men, that we may
not think that riches are good in themselves, and sometimes He gives
riches to godly men, that we may not think that riches are evil in
8C. Recognize then, that God
may give you material prosperity and position and not give you Christ.
But if He gives you Christ, how shall He not with Him freely give you
3A. THE THIRD DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
ASSURANCE AND PRESUMPTION IS IN RESPECT OF THE MANNER AND METHOD THE
SPIRIT OF GOD USUALLY WORKS ASSURANCE
Here are some of the experiences
by which the people of God come to have assurance:
1B. First, By A Deep And Serious
Humiliation For Sin, And By Feeling The Burden Of Sin.
1C. Such only are promised to
find rest in their souls. Christ did not assure Mary Magdalene her
sins were forgiven till she wept much for them, Luke 7. Let no one
presume to set limits on any time span or degree of the soulís
humiliation, but neither deny the truth of it.
2C. Suppose you come to a man
who is confident about everything, as well as confident with himself.
Then you think of the travails your own soul has had that cured you of
such confidence in all things, as well as curing you of confidence
3C. In Romans 8.15 the Spirit
of God is a spirit of bondage, before it is a spirit of adoption. And
this very truth is enough to shake the foundations of many menís
buildings. What deep digging was there in your heart to lay the
foundation that has led to your present confidence?
4C. Now, I know that these
observations I make will be wholeheartedly rejected by those who turn
their backs on Paulís experiences and the wisdom of the Puritans.
But in Romans 7 and 8 Paul fully describes this progression and method
in his own experience.
5C. First, there was the
discovery of his own sin by the Law, whereby he judged himself
miserable and unimaginably sinful. Then came the apprehension of
Christís grace on top of this. "O wretched man that I am! who
shall deliver me from the body of this death? I thank God through
Jesus Christ our Lord," Romans 7.24-25.
6C. This type of assurance will
not grow in a heart thatís not been plowed up. The needle must
pierce the heart before this silk can follow.
2B. Another Method Whereby God
Works Assurance Is By Conflicts Of Doubts And The Opposition Of
1C. Seeing that assurance is a
fruit of Godís Spirit, and that doubting is a working of the flesh,
it cannot be but that the Apostleís rule applies, the flesh lusteth
against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh, Galatians 5. So,
there is a resulting ebb and flow of assurance.
2C. I am not persuaded by the
"assurance" that has never had any doubts. Remember, the
flesh and the Spirit are contrary to each other. An assurance that
never doubts, then, is like the rich young ruler, who said, "All
these have I kept from my youth up." It is unbelievable that so
great and spiritual a mercy should be brought into your soul without
any accompanying turmoil and commotion in your heart.
3C. So, the mixture of an
awareness of Godís grace in you, accompanied by a sense and a
feeling of your imperfections, are always good symptoms. Itís like
the man who said, "Lord, I believe; help thou mine
unbelief." There was his assurance ("Lord, I believe"),
followed by his perception of his defects ("help thou mine
4C. Back to the psalmist,
David, once more. Sometimes he basked in the sunshine of Godís
favor, and everything seemed fine to him. At other times he was in the
dark, and there was much wavering by him. Folks, thatís not wrong.
Thatís normal. Thatís right. Thatís the way assurance works in a
human being who is saved by grace, and who is not presumptuous.
3B. Third, God Works Assurance
Out Of The Vehement And Fiery Assaults Of Satan.
1C. As the Lord Jesus Christ,
Himself, was not immune Satanís from attacks, so neither are those
who are His. Woe, then, to that man whose peace the devil does not
disturb. Remember, from Mark 3, that the strong man who is the devil
kept all things quiet in his house, until Christ, the One Who is
stronger, came. With Jesus comes the conflict.
2C. My friends, the devil
opposes Jesus Christ and all who are His. Recognize that it is vain
presumption, and not godly assurance, which is not opposed by the
devil, himself. The man is an Egyptian, not an Israelite, if the
Pharaoh does not oppress him. Freedom from struggle, therefore, does
not suggest assurance for the Christian, but presumption for the
4A. A FOURTH REAL DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN ASSURANCE AND PRESUMPTION IS IN THE EFFECTS OF GODLY ASSURANCE,
HOW IT OUTSTRIPS PRESUMPTION AS LIGHT DOES DARKNESS
1B. Thus, Godly Assurance Is
Diligent In The Use Of The Means Of Grace, Is Careful To Perform All
Duties, And In The Neglect Of These Duties It Either Perishes Or Is Much
1C. "Give all
diligence," says Peter, "to make your calling and election
sure," Second Peter 1.10. So where diligence, and all
diligence, is not used, verse 5, there will be no assurance.
2C. Folks, this is the oil
which keeps the lamp burning. In earnest prayer, feeding upon Godís
Word, attending to the preaching of Godís Word, faithfulness to
gather with the saints. This is how godly certainty is maintained.
Whereas carnal confidence is big and swelling, even while neglecting
the means of grace; giving us a man who does not pray, is not faithful
in Church, who pollutes himself with daily sins, and yet he is
thoroughly persuaded that heís a Christian.
3C. If in the physical realm a
man is judged a presumer who will persuade himself of life when yet he
will neither eat or drink, and is a presumer who assures himself of
wealth and riches when yet he is a sluggard and will use no diligence,
then certainly a man of such arrogance that he will neglect the means
of grace for living, prayer, Bible reading and study, faithful
attendance at Church, and so forth, can only be and must be judged a
2B. As Well, Godly Assurance, The
More There Is The More It Inflames The Heart With Love For God.
1C. Itís like the magnifying
glass that, by the diffraction of the sunbeams, causes a fire to be
kindled within, as was mentioned of David and Paul. There are none who
so highly bless God and praise Him as those that have this biblically
based assurance of salvation.
2C. But carnal presumption
turns in the other direction. It works into a love of yourself, or the
comforts you enjoy, or the toys you want to play with, and results in
less care for God. Like the adulteress in Proverbs. The more confident
she is of her husbandís love, the more bold and impudent she is to
abuse it. But the Spirit of adoption gives a childís love for God,
and an assurance of a fatherís love melts the heart that has such a
love for God. But love that is shown to not be genuine produces an
attitude of haughtiness and superiority and arrogance.
3C. Consider, then, how that
which you take to be assurance works in you. Does it diminish your
affection for sin and distance you from the world? Does it crowd out
your enjoyment of things here below, and raise your heart up to God
above, delighting and rejoicing in Him?
4C. This type of work in you is
a comfortable demonstration of good assurance.
3B. Third, Godly Assurance Is
Strong And Potent Enough To Encourage The Heart No Matter The
Discouragements And Desolations.
1C. Thus, David, greatly
discouraged when the wives and children of his men (and his own wives)
were kidnaped and his men wanted to retaliate by stoning him to death,
was able to encourage himself in the LORD his
God, First Samuel 30.6.
2C. This kind of certainty of
your relationship with God in the dark times and in the deep valleys
is like an ark that carries your soul through the storm-tossed seas of
life, and keeps your heart from sinking. A carnal, confident man, on
the other hand, has a heart that sinks like a stone within him when
his carnal hopes fail.
3C. My friend, this is an
important symptom to watch for in the midst of this lifeís chaos you
live in, when troubles come at you from every side, when the water is
so choppy and the waves so high that heaven and earth seem to be
4C. What makes you rejoice and
lift up your head with gladness? Is it that knowledge you have of God
that He is your God? Is it those gifts and remembrances He has placed
in your soul to be tokens of His eternal love and goodness toward you?
Such as this is important stuff.
5C. But sadly, as with the
hypocriteís joy, so also will his confidence quickly perish.
Presumption is not a star fixed in the night sky. It is instead a
quickly disintegrating comet plunging to the earth, that flashes
brightly and quickly, but is soon consumed and vanishes away.
6C. One ancient scholar spoke
about assurance in this way: "If it can endure the hammer, if
under the hammer above, and the anvil below, it remains durable, then
it is true metal." So it is with true assurance. It holds, even
though billows and waves wash over it.
7C. So, the troubles that come
upon you will discern the truth of your real spiritual condition
sooner than anything else.
5A. Fifthly, THERE IS AN OBVIOUS
DIFFERENCE IN WHAT ACCOMPANIES ASSURANCE AND WHAT ACCOMPANIES PRESUMPTION
Two examples of those things that
are companions of godly assurance:
1B. First, Godly Assurance Is
Accompanied By Holy Fear And Trembling.
1C. Does Godís Word
contradict itself? No. So, when in one place it calls upon you to make
your calling sure, Second Peter 1.10, and in another place it calls
upon you to work out your own salvation with fear and trembling,
Philippians 2.12, the two must go together, both the sureness of your
calling and the fear and trembling of working out your own salvation.
2C. Neither can these two
graces contradict one another, the sureness or assurance on one hand
and the fear and trembling on the other hand. So then, they who are
assured, though they rejoice, yet they rejoice with trembling. Those
who are assured they shall stand, yet take heed lest they fall.
Something understood by the truly converted, but disputed by the
3C. As a man that looks down
from some place high up on a mountain lookout or on a tall
buildingís observation deck, though while he holds on he knows he
cannot fall, yet when he looks down to the ground that is so far below
him, he cannot help but fear he should fall. So, at the same time he
has both an assurance of not falling, and a fear of falling, though
not from the same considerations.
4C. Thus it is with the people
of God, whereas carnal presumption excludes all kinds of fear and
interferes with the proper diligence that is always associated with
2B. A Second Companion Of Godly
Assurance Is Humility And Lowliness Of Mind.
1C. The greater the mercies God
bestows on His people the lower they are in their own eyes. The virgin
Mary illustrated this in her magnifcat of Luke 1, wherein she made
reference to her low estate in verse 48, and her low degree in verse
52. As well, king David recognized Godís kindness in exalting him, a
poor shepherd boy, to the throne of Israel.
2C. Carnal presumption on the
other hand, leads to more confidence, to more pride in yourself, and
in an eventual despising of others. What better proof that a Pharisee
has not the assurance of grace in him when he prays, but by his vain
confidence whereby he despises other men as sinners in comparison to
himself? "The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, God, I
thank thee, that I am not as other men are, extortioners,
unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican," Luke 18.11.
3C. Does this not also make you
wonder about those who claim to receive revelations from God, and
those who claim they have some sort of special assurance from Godís
Spirit? Are they not, in effect, suffering a proud delusion by
condemning others as low who are not acquainted with the Spirit of God
as they are? What arrogance is associated with the "God told me
to tell you" mentality.
4C. There was a danger that
truly godly men might become proud when they were lifted up to great
privileges. Paul was taken up into the third heaven and received
revelations. Paul was also assaulted with buffetings from Satan to
keep him low. He mentions it twice in Second Corinthians 12.7:
"And lest I should be exalted above measure through the abundance
of the revelations, there was given to me a thorn in the flesh, the
messenger of Satan to buffet me, lest I should be exalted above
5C. One ancient compares this
temptation of Satan exercising Paul in the midst of his revelations to
the boy who was charged by a conquering hero to run beside him and to
cry aloud to him while he rode in triumph, "Remember thyself to
be a man." If such danger exists even with godly men, when they
have the real work of Godís Spirit in them, what greater concern
should there be of pride in presumptuous men, who have only the empty
delusions of Satan that they mistake for Godís exaltations and
6C. So, when you are persuaded
of Godís love toward you, that it is God Who has lifted you up to
prominence and prestige, and you look upon yourself in heaven while
others grovel upon the ground, and when you see yourself to be as much
above other Christians as an angel is above a worm, then you should be
afraid of this supposed blessing.
7C. You see, it is not Godís
blessing that has resulted in these opinions about yourself, but the
workings of the devil, who has transformed himself into an angel of
light to you.
6A. Lastly, ASSURANCE AND
PRESUMPTION DIFFER IN WHAT WILL DESTROY THEM
Here is perhaps the most obvious
place where contemporary "Christianity" departs from Biblical
1B. What Will Destroy Genuine
Assurance Of Salvation? According To The Bible, Assurance Given By
Godís Spirit Is Only Interrupted By Sin.
1C. "Grieve not the holy
Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed," Ephesians 4.30. You see,
corrupt and idle talk, even what the world supposes to be little sins,
may greatly disturb a Christianís certainty.
2C. But carnal presumption is
not weakened through sin. Carnal presumption holds fast in denying any
possibility of spiritual danger, no matter what sins are committed by
3C. This is how conservative
pastors can claim to have never doubted their salvation, even while
they were in the middle of years of drunkenness, adultery, fornication
and drug use. Yet they proudly proclaim their "assurance"
never wavered. Such as that is obviously presumption.
2B. Thus, Assurance Of Salvation
That Is Godly, And Presumption Of Salvation Which Is Ungodly, Differ
Dramatically In What Destroys Them.
1C. Peace in the Holy Ghost
that results from assurance is only excluded by sin or lukewarmness in
performing Christian duties.
2C. But sinful confidence is
unshakable by sin, and will only fall when it is shaken or removed by
some external trouble.
1. There is presumption and there
2. I would not have you confused
about the two, which one is of God and which one is of the flesh and the
3. Make sure you know Jesus, Who died on a cruel cross to pay for your
sins, the Just for the unjust, that He might bring you to God. Do not
 Barna Report survey reported in Baptist Bible Tribune,
April 15, 1996, page 28.
 Monroe "Monk" Parker, Through Sunshine and
Shadows: My First Seventy-Seven Years, (Murfreesboro, Tennessee:
Sword of the Lord, 1987), pp.61-62.