Calvary Road Baptist Church


John 2.19-21


Please turn in your Bible to John chapter 2. When you find John chapter 2, I invite you to stand for the reading of God’s Word, reading along silently as I read verses 13-22 aloud:


13  And the Jews’ passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem,

14  And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting:

15  And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers’ money, and overthrew the tables;

16  And said unto them that sold doves, Take these things hence; make not my Father’s house an house of merchandise.

17  And his disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up.

18  Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things?

19  Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.

20  Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days?

21  But he spake of the temple of his body.

22  When therefore he was risen from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this unto them; and they believed the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said.


Verse 13: “And the Jews’ passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.”


You wonder why John would describe it as “the Jews’ passover” instead of “the Lord’s passover.” After all, in Exodus 12.11 and Leviticus 23.5, God refers to the observance as “the LORD’s passover.” In Exodus 12.27, Moses repeats God’s statement, “the LORD’s passover,” to the elders of Israel while giving them instructions about its proper observance. Could it be that the spiritual level of the people and the general spirituality of the Passover’s observance had degenerated to such a state that in John’s inspired account the Holy Spirit could no longer honestly refer to it as “the LORD’s passover,” but used the sadly accurate phrase “the Jew’s passover”? I think that might be the case. Albert Barnes writes, “Every male among the Jews was required to appear at this feast. Jesus, in obedience to the law, went up to observe it. This is the first Passover on which he attended after he entered on the work of the ministry. It is commonly supposed that he observed three others -- one recorded Lu 6:1, another Joh 6:4, and the last one on the night before he was crucified, Joh 11:55. As his baptism when he entered on his ministry had taken place some time before this -- probably not far from six months -- it follows that the period of his ministry was not far from three years and a half. . . .”[1]


Verse 14: “And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting.”


John Gill writes: “Not in the holy place itself, nor in the court of the priests, where the sacrifices were offered, nor in the court of the women, nor in the court of the Israelites, where the people worshipped; but in the court of the Gentiles, or the outward court, even all that space of ground which was between the wall which divided the whole from common ground, and the buildings of the temple, and which was open to the air; for the whole sacred enclosure, or all within the wall, went by the name of the temple.”[2] The Temple had its coinage that in no way reflected the idolatry of other coins commonly used. But those who came to the Temple to worship came from all over the known world, with gold and silver coins imprinted with false gods minted in various places. So, to purchase animals for sacrifice, as well as other things, tables were set up for currency exchange. A visitor could enter the Temple courtyard, go first to a currency exchange, then go to a booth to purchase an animal for sacrifice, and then pay to have the sacrifice examined by a proper authority to make sure it was without blemish and fit for sacrifice. Understand that these functions had to be performed. Money had to be exchanged for the proper currency. Sacrifices had to be purchased for the offering. Animals had to be inspected for fitness. However, these businesses did not have to be set up in the courtyard of the Temple. Neither did they have to charge exorbitant rates to visitors who could secure their services nowhere else. And since the entire operation was run by the high priest’s family, who had a monopoly stranglehold on these services, the entire affair had degenerated over time into a racket.[3] The Temple courtyard should not have been turned into a swap meet or a strip mall. The visitors who came to worship God should not have been taken advantage of. The lying and cheating and thievery that resulted in money pouring into the priest’s coffers were also a terrible desecration of what should have been regarded as sacred.


Verses 15-16: “And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers’ money, and overthrew the tables; And said unto them that sold doves, Take these things hence; make not my Father’s house an house of merchandise.”


Observe that nothing the Lord Jesus Christ did deprived anyone of their property. The sheep and oxen were easily rounded up. The money knocked off the tables was easily gathered up again. And He spoke to those who sold doves that might have otherwise flown away. He just did not want His Father’s house functioning as a commercial marketplace. Of course, His actions enraged the priests, who received money from these vendors for allowing them to conduct business in the Temple courtyard. But the priests were only the custodians of God’s house. They had no right to allow what they had allowed. Why did they do it? Why did they cheapen their ministries? Why did they allow God’s house to become a house of merchandise? For the money, of course. In First Timothy 6.10, Paul writes,


“the love of money is the root of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith.”


Verse 17: “And his disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up.”


The question that comes to my mind is, When did His disciples remember this Old Testament passage that applied to what the Lord Jesus did that day? Did they remember it at the time this happened, or did they remember when reflecting upon it after His death, burial and resurrection? I confess that I do not know the answer to this question. The statement, “The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up,” is a direct quote from Psalm 69.9, a psalm that has several verses with obvious Messianic overtones. But what does this statement mean? It is a statement made by the Lord Jesus Christ to His heavenly Father, and it means that the Lord Jesus Christ was consumed with an ardent desire to see God glorified in His house. His zeal to see God glorified in His house would take the Son of God all the way to the cross of Calvary.


Verse 18: “Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things?”


It is unlikely that the apostle is referring to ordinary folks when he writes, “Then answered the Jews and said unto him.” The old bromide, “Rank hath its privileges” applies to civilian life as well as the military. And in the civilian culture, there are obvious levels of rank and status, just as in the military. In the Lord Jesus’ day, such levels of status and privilege were well marked and easily recognized. So, do not think anyone but priests would have approached the Lord Jesus Christ in the Temple courtyard and demanded of Him as they did. Notice that they did not suggest that His accusations against them were incorrect. They did not defend themselves against His charges. They, quite reasonably they thought, asked Him for a sign. But their question to Him revealed something about themselves. Referring to Jesus Christ standing in the midst of a group of men, unrecognized, John the Baptist said these words in John 1.26:


“there standeth one among you, whom ye know not.”


The same could have been said here. The Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the living God, the Messiah of Israel, had just displayed zeal that should have identified Him to those at the scene. But they remained ignorant; or should I say blind.


Verse 19: “Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.”


They asked Him a question. They solicited a sign. He responded to their question. But they did not understand what He said, or what He meant. Notice the phrase, “Destroy this temple.” When we read this verse, we assume that what our Lord Jesus meant is that “If you destroy this temple, in three days I will raise it up.” But that is not at all what He meant. This is a prophesy, a prediction of what they will do. He means, “You will destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.”


Verse 20: “Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days?”


They completely misunderstood Him, didn’t they? They asked Him a question, which He truthfully and forthrightly answered. But they did not believe Him. From the reaction of the Jews, we can see that they think the Lord Jesus Christ was referring to the Temple, known at this time as Herod’s Temple. The original Temple erected by Solomon was destroyed by the Babylonians some six centuries earlier. When the remnant returned from 70 years of captivity under Zerubbabel, it was rebuilt. The Temple that stood in our Lord Jesus’ day was the remodeled and greatly enlarged and beautified Temple constructed by the much hated Herod. That they indicated it was 46 years into the remodeling effort provides a precise date of this time, since archaeologists know the precise time Herod’s Temple project began.


Verse 21: “But he spake of the temple of his body.”


There are different kinds of temples found in the Bible: There are temples made of stone, such as the temple of Diana, in Ephesus.[4] There were, of course, the successive temples of the one true and living God in Jerusalem, Solomon’s Temple, later Zerubbabel’s Temple, and lastly Herod’s Temple. Then, of course, there will be the Tribulation Temple that is awaiting construction, and lastly, the Millennial Temple erected after Christ’s return. In First Corinthians 3.16 the Apostle Paul identifies the Corinthian congregation as “the temple of God,” showing us that Church congregations are a type of temple. In Second Corinthians 6.16, he again refers to that congregation and by extension ours also, as “the temple of the living God.” In First Corinthians 6.19 Paul identifies another type of temple, an individual Christian’s body, which is the temple of the Holy Ghost by the Holy Spirit’s indwelling presence. Then, there is the verse before us, in which the Lord Jesus Christ’s Own human body is said by the Apostle John to be the temple He was referring to when He answered the Jews. Of course, He was referring to the fact that He would rise from the dead three days and three nights after His crucifixion and burial.


Verse 22: “When therefore he was risen from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this unto them; and they believed the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said.”


So you see, even though the Lord Jesus Christ responded truthfully, neither the Jews nor His disciples understood at the time what He meant. It was only after He had risen from the dead that they remembered the words He had spoken three years earlier, and, of course, they “believed the scripture and the word which Jesus had said.”

Once a year Christendom celebrates Easter, commemorating the resurrection of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, from the dead. And almost every year Bro. K. invites me to Jerusalem to celebrate Easter in that city. Of course, every year I decline because I must be here on so important a day. But perhaps someday my wife and I will be in Jerusalem on Easter Sunday. What other religion, what other belief system, what other faith, celebrates their founder’s conquest of death as we do every year on Easter Sunday? Buddha died. Period. Confucius died. Period. Mohammed died. Period. Joseph Smith died.[5] Period. L. Ron Hubbard died.[6] Period. But when the Lord Jesus Christ died, there was no period; only a comma. For you see, He, unlike the others, rose from the dead after three days and three nights. Astounding!

Buddha accomplished nothing by his death. Confucius accomplished nothing by his death. Mohammed accomplished nothing by his death. Joseph Smith accomplished nothing by his death. L. Ron Hubbard accomplished nothing by his death. Can the same be said about the Lord Jesus Christ? Did His death accomplish nothing? It is not a fair question, is it? Because He did die, but He also rose again on the third day. So, the correct question to ask is, What did He accomplish by His death, burial, and resurrection?

There are many wonderful things the Savior accomplished by His death, burial, and resurrection; things never claimed by such mere men as Buddha, Confucius, Mohammed, Joseph Smith, and L. Ron Hubbard, or any of their followers. I would like to focus your attention on only one of those accomplishments. My text is John 2.19-21. When you find that passage, I invite to stand once more for the reading of God’s Word:


19  Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.

20  Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days?

21  But he spake of the temple of his body.


I would like to describe one of the things the Lord Jesus Christ accomplished by His death, burial, and resurrection. I will arrange the truths I want to present to you under five headings:




From the earliest artifacts that archaeologists have discovered in burial crypts and tombs, and even in caves, extending to the farthest reaches of the globe, man has shown himself to be, and to always have been, religious. Whether they be the Incas of Peru, the Mayans of the Yucatan Peninsula, the Aztecs of central Mexico, the Pueblos of North America’s desert Southwest, the mound builders of the Mississippi Valley in the New World, or the ancient peoples who lived near the Nile River Valley, the Tigris-Euphrates River, the Indus River, and the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, wherever remains have been found there has been evidence of religion.

Some would say that may have been true in the past, but many are atheists today. Not really. At the height of communism under the Soviet regime, the Soviet state was as much a religious organization as was the Russian Orthodox Church. The long lines in Moscow that formed to pass by the glass casket of V. I. Lenin, and the insistence by the soldiers standing guard that reverence and a respectful attitude be maintained in proximity to his dead body, were all the trappings of religion. The great tragedy for the loyal communists when the Soviet Union collapsed was that their secular religion had collapsed.

Some worship capitalism. Some worship government. Some worship money. Some worship patriotism. Used to be, there were those who worshiped at the altar of the Elk’s Club, or the Scottish Rite, or the Shriners, or the yacht club, or the country club. Some good Baptists worship their pastor, or their Church, or their Bible. There are even some who worship God.

My point is man worships. He seeks to infuse into that which he is most devoted to some spiritual quality. Why? Because, no matter how course or crude or debased he may be, man tends in some way toward worship. Nimrod took great advantage of man’s inclination to worship when he constructed the tower of Babel in Genesis 11. But God judged them by confusing their languages, and they scattered. So, man has a recognizable and characteristic urge to worship. He may worship the sun, the moon, the stars, a tree stump, a political or economic system, a country, a woman, a child, a flag, a religious denomination, or even God. But somehow, and in some way, it is the desire of man to worship. What do you worship?




The desire of man to worship is the direct result of God’s desire to be worshiped. Remember, when God formed man from the dust of the earth and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man become a living soul, he was made in the image and likeness of God.[7] What, precisely, is meant by the idea of man being made in the image and likeness of God? Though it is a very difficult subject to comprehend, we can at least be agreed that man, the creature, is like God, his creator, in having spiritual capacity, in having moral capacity. Man desires religion, has hunger at some level for that which is spiritual, seeks to worship, because God, his Maker, desires to be worshiped and therefore made man to be that kind of creature.

If God is the greatest of all beings, the First Cause, and the highest and noblest in character and qualities, then it is most reasonable and proper that He be worshiped, that He be adored, that He be praised, that He be obeyed, and that He be served. Revelation 4.11 speaks to this very thing:


“Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honour and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created.”


Indeed, one of God’s reasons for creating this universe and all that herein is, and a specific reason for creating man, was so that man might enjoy God by worshiping and serving Him forever. So when God created man in His image and after His likeness, He created man with the capacity for worship and with the desire to worship. But God’s interest is not for man to worship generally. God’s interest is for man to worship God and only God specifically. This is reflected in what are commonly referred to as the Ten Commandments. In Exodus 20.3 God declared,


“Thou shalt have no other gods before me.”


He elaborated on this theme in the next three verses:


4  Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth:

5  Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me;

6  And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.


It is very clear, then, that God’s desires are also God’s demands. And what He demands He commands. And when His commands are not obeyed He punishes, because He is both just and jealous. God desires worship. And because only He is God, and beside Him, there is no other, only He deserves the worship of His creatures. So, man desires to worship, and God desires to receive worship and to be the exclusive Object of man’s worship. Only God is to be worshiped, adored, honored, glorified, and served.




When God created Adam, He created him perfect in every way. He was morally clean and sinless. His nature was such that he could, and did, freely commune with God. And so long as Adam continued in his original state of moral purity and perfection he could enjoy God fully and worship Him using a direct and unencumbered approach. There was no obstacle, no barrier, and no gulf that separated Adam from God.

But Adam sinned against God and was plunged by his sinful disobedience into the deep chasm of sinfulness. By a despicable act of rebellion, Adam’s nature was altered from holiness to sinfulness. He died spiritually, and his nature was corrupted so that communion with the Holy God was henceforth impossible. Adam became sinful, yet he still had a desire and an inclination to worship. Tragically, the effects of his act of sin were passed on to his posterity. Romans 5.12 explains,


“Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned.”


This sinful condition became the most obvious characteristic of mankind’s nature, affecting every aspect of man’s existence. His heart is now inclined against God to the point of being God’s enemy; his mind was darkened to the point of changing


“the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.”[8]


Though man was still inclined to worship, he began to worship creatures rather than the Creator, actually carving images from stone and wood, gods that could neither speak nor hear. This gave rise to the world’s false religions that are the combined result of man’s spiritual blindness and his susceptibility to demonic influences. Here man’s sin-induced blindness and self-deception would give rise to totem poles and idolatrous statuary, while there would spring up a demon named Allah and his wicked servant, Mohammed. Or there would arise the arrogant conceit of a Buddha in the mist of the gross idolatry of a million gods in India, while over here would erupt like a boil the Satan-inspired spawn of Marx called communism. Then, in another part of the world, there arises a false Christianity that bows before figures and images, while in yet another part of the world there is a dry orthodoxy that appears to have a form of godliness while denying the power thereof.[9]

And have you noticed how man requires holy geography for his false worship? The Muslims have their Mecca. The Mormons have their Salt Lake City temple, now expanded to numerous temples. The Hindus have their Ganges River. The Roman Catholics have their holy city, the Vatican. The Buddhists have their various shrines and temples. Each of these a shabby imitation of the Temple in Jerusalem given by God to the Jews. Such is the nature of man.




The Samaritan woman said to the Lord Jesus in John 4.20,


“Our fathers worshipped in this mountain; and ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship.”


What did our Lord Jesus say in reply?


21  Jesus saith unto her, Woman, believe me, the hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father.

22  Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we worship: for salvation is of the Jews.

23  But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth: for the Father seeketh such to worship him.

24  God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth.

25  The woman saith unto him, I know that Messias cometh, which is called Christ: when he is come, he will tell us all things.

26  Jesus saith unto her, I that speak unto thee am he.


Yes, God did give to the Jews the Tabernacle in the wilderness and then the Temple in Jerusalem. But that was preparatory. As the Lord Jesus said to the woman,


“the hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth.”


Not ritual and formalism. And certainly not confined in any place constructed by man.

What was it Stephen said to the mob that stoned him to death?


“the most High dwelleth not in temples made with hands,”


Acts 7.48. And he was quoting Solomon when he dedicated the original Temple in Jerusalem, who said,


“behold, the heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain thee; how much less this house that I have builded?”


First Kings 8.27.

What Solomon told his people, and what Stephen reminded them of 1000 years later, was essentially what Paul told the Athenians in Acts 17.22-24:


22  Then Paul stood in the midst of Mars’ hill, and said, Ye men of Athens, I perceive that in all things ye are too superstitious.

23  For as I passed by, and beheld your devotions, I found an altar with this inscription, TO THE UNKNOWN GOD. Whom therefore ye ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you.

24  God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands.


So, God, Who is most gracious and merciful, did accommodate His people for a time. He authorized the Temple and sacrifices to provide types and figures to instruct the people. But as the Lord Jesus Christ said to the Samaritan woman, no more. When the Son of God was arrested and crucified two things occurred which signified that worship in the Temple had come to an end, so far as God was concerned: When “the high priest rent his clothes,” in Matthew 26.65, which violated a prohibition God had instituted in Leviticus 21.10, the ministry of the Aaronic priesthood ended once and for all. Henceforth, there would be no God-ordained priests of the Aaronic order for Temple worship under the auspices of the Mosaic Law. And when “Jesus . . . yielded up the ghost . . . behold, the veil of the temple was rent in twain from the top to the bottom,” Matthew 27.50-51. This veil, at the entrance to the holy of holies, now being torn, indicated that the Temple would no longer be of any use to God or man.

So, God’s desire is to be worshiped, and man’s desire is to worship. But God’s nature, by the fact that He is holy, and by the fact that He is so immense that He is bigger than the universe, cannot inhabit a mere temple made with hands or be respectfully approached by sinful and wicked men.


Which Brings Me To The Final Heading, THE LORD JESUS CHRIST


The Lord Jesus Christ referred to Himself when He said, in John 2.19,


“Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.”


That is clear from John 2.21:


“But he spake of the temple of his body.”


What do you suppose He meant when He referred to His body as “this temple”? A temple is a place where you can meet with God. When Jesus Christ identified Himself and described Himself as “this temple,” He was pointing out that He is the place where you meet with God.

Let me explain how this relates to the desire of man and the desire of God, the nature of man and the nature of God: Isaiah 53.2 says about Israel’s Messiah,


“. . . there is no beauty that we should desire him.”


But when the Spirit of God works, and when the God of the Spirit draws, then the Lord Jesus Christ becomes, as Haggai 2.7 describes Him, “the desire of all nations.” Under the convincing work of the Holy Spirit, Jesus Christ, the Savior of sinful men’s souls, and Israel’s long-awaited Messiah becomes the heart’s desire of those truly sorry for their sins, becomes the heart’s desire of those who yearn to be reconciled to God. And that is, after all, the desire of God. Why else would He send His Son to suffer and bleed and die, but save those for whom His precious blood was shed? So, when a sinner is converted to Christ, the desire of that man is miraculously changed so that the heart’s affection is now toward Jesus Christ. This makes God in Christ the object of his worship, thereby fulfilling God’s desire to be the Object of his worship. Man’s desire is, by the blood of Christ, cleansed, cured, and corrected, making it compatible with God’s desire for him. But there is the nature of man and the nature of God to consider. The nature of man is sinful. The nature of God is holy. This holiness of God prevents a sinful man from approaching,


“For our God is a consuming fire,”


Hebrews 10.29. So, for a man to be reconciled to God, the man’s sins must be dealt with in a satisfactory way, a mediator must be found, a qualified go-between must be enlisted. That is where the Lord Jesus comes in. First Timothy 2.5 declares,


“For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.”


What does He accomplish as a mediator between God and a sinful man? Listen to what John said about the Savior in Revelation 1.5:


“Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood.”


The shed blood of Jesus Christ is the remedy for the moral aspect of God’s nature and man’s sinful nature. Our sins are cleansed by the blood of Christ and are no more the cause of repugnance and rejection by God. However, there is still an aspect of God’s nature and man’s nature that is often overlooked; our puniness and God’s immensity. God is so big, and man is so very tiny. How can you meet with God when He is so big, and you are so small? You meet God in His Son, Jesus Christ. Remember, though He is raised from the dead and ascended to His Father’s right hand on high, Jesus Christ is yet a man. The Son of God, yet still a man. God in the flesh, but still a man. Paul told the Colossians,


“For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily.”[10]


And this was what Job anticipated when he excitedly predicted,


“And though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God.”[11]


Man’s desire and God’s desire are both fulfilled when, through faith in Jesus Christ, a sinner becomes a new creature in Christ. With a new heart and new desires, he fulfills his desire by fulfilling God’s desire for worship. At the very same time, God’s nature and man’s nature are dealt with when sins are cleansed by the shed blood of Christ and man can approach and have all of God there is in the person of Jesus Christ, His Son.


I conclude with this: A temple is a place where you meet with God. But God, the one true and living God, is a God of such holiness, and is a God of such immensity, that His nature is an insurmountable obstacle to your worship of Him. He is both holy and far too big for you to meet with Him. So He accommodated you in the following way: In the person of His Son, He became a man you can come to. You must come to Him by faith, but you can come to Him. And when you come to His Son, Jesus Christ, your sins will be cleansed in His blood, so that His holy nature will not object to you, because you will be clean.

This is all quite theological, but the upshot of it is so very simple: Forget the temples. Forget the cathedrals and the shrines. Forget the holy geography. If you want to meet with God, Jesus Christ is the only place where that can happen, where that will happen, where that must happen. God is a God of such mercy and compassion, a God of such wisdom and love, that He has made it possible for any man, any woman, any child, anywhere, anytime, to meet with Him who will just come to His Son. So, come now.


[1] Albert Barnes, Albert Barnes’ NT Commentary, (Bronson, MI: Online Publishing, Inc., 2002),

[2] John Gill, The Baptist Commentary Series Volume I, John Gill’s Exposition Of The Old And New Testaments, Vol 5 (Paris, Arkansas: the Baptist Standard Bearer, Inc., reprinted 2006), page 761.

[3] Read Edersheim’s comments in Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah: New Updated Version, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, Inc., 1993), pages 254-260.

[4] Acts 19.27

[5] Joseph Smith was the founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, also known as the Mormons.

[6] L. Ron Hubbard was the science fiction writer who founded the Church of Scientology. See

[7] Genesis 2.7; 1.26-27

[8] Romans 1.23

[9] 2 Timothy 3.5

[10] Colossians 2.9

[11] Job 19.26

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