Calvary Road Baptist Church

“THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST: ITS METAPHORS (temple)”  

The Apostle Paul’s use of metaphors to teach truths related to the church of Jesus Christ is of obvious importance to the child of God. After all, it is God’s plan for Christians to be church members, and to engage and involve themselves in congregational ministry, to glorify God, to magnify the Savior, and to both provide and to receive blessings. It is primarily Paul’s use of metaphors that helps us to better understand how some of these opportunities and blessings are made available to us. The body of Christ metaphor shows how the church of Jesus Christ is in some ways similar to the functioning of a healthy human body. In ways we understand in our modern era more than they understood in the first century, the interconnected systems as well as organs of the human body are of profound importance to healthy function. Of course, that instruction is almost completely lost on those who insist the body Paul referred to when he made mention of the body of Christ is thought to be some type of invisible and disassociated one.

We now turn to a second of the apostle’s metaphors, with it being yet another example of the Protestant approach to misunderstanding the church, by which they force a strange and incredible meaning that results in a terrible loss of instruction for God’s people. That metaphor is the temple, with one Greek word, hieron, literally referring to a building, a structure.[1] Another term used by the Greeks was naos, a synonym of hieron, referring to a place or structure specifically set apart for deity.[2] So fixed in the Jewish and early Christian mind was the Temple in Jerusalem, and so rooted in pagan Gentile thought were their various temples to their pagan gods, that I cannot envision a temple being nonphysical even when used as a metaphor.[3] With both Greek words a temple is a building, a special building, a sacred building, but a building nevertheless. There are actually five temples referred to in the New Testament, with Herod’s Temple being the one that is referred to an overwhelming number of times, especially in the gospels and the book of Acts. In John 2.19 and 21 the Lord Jesus Christ said, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” “But he spake of the temple of his body.” Then, in Acts 19.27 we have recorded a comment made in the city of Ephesus about the temple of the pagan goddess Diana. That brings the temple count to three; the Temple of Herod, the temple of Christ’s physical body, and the temple of Diana in Ephesus. That would be 85 verses, one verse referring to the temple of Diana, two verses in which our Lord referred to His Own physical body, and 82 verses having to do with the literal Temple in Jerusalem. Those of you familiar with John’s Revelation may remember as well numerous references to a temple in heaven, thirteen references to be exact, though each of those are references to a literal structure in heaven referred to by the apostle following the Rapture of Church Age believers.[4] However, it is in the epistles of the New Testament that we find of the two Greek words translated temple, hieron and naos, the word naos used as a metaphor to provide a clearer understanding to Christians about important truths related to the church of Jesus Christ.

I would like you to read six verses with me, in each of which is found a reference to a temple. As we read I want you to look for indication of the kind of temple that is referred to, after which we will consider three main points.

 

First Corinthians 3.16: “Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?”

 

Notice the phrase “ye are the temple of God,” as well as “the Spirit of God dwelleth in you,” with ye and you being plural. Ever wonder why Paul did not say “we are the temple of God” or “the Spirit of God dwelleth in us”?

 

First Corinthians 3.17:  “If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are.”

 

A warning against defiling the temple of God, ending with a declaration that “the temple of God . . . ye are.” Again, why did Paul not write “the temple of God . . . we are”?

 

First Corinthians 6.19:  “What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own?”

 

Here we read that “your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost.” Is there a difference between the temple of God and the temple of the Holy Ghost? Is Paul distinguishing the Persons of the Trinity when he writes the temple of God and the temple of the Holy Ghost? Are these two different temples? I am so persuaded.

 

Second Corinthians 6.16:  “And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.”

 

In yet another letter Paul declares to the Corinthians “ye are the temple of the living God,” before making reference to Leviticus 26.11-12 where God speaks of His intent to dwell in the midst of His people.

 

Ephesians 2.21: “In whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto an holy temple in the Lord.”

 

A somewhat different phrase, “an holy temple in the Lord,” though it should be pointed out that “fitly framed together” translates the verb form of a word describing the process of building a physical structure.[5]

 

Now for my three main points, which are conclusions related to this metaphor of the church of Jesus Christ as a temple:

 

First, THERE IS THE TEMPLE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT

 

I am persuaded there is a distinction in Paul’s first letter to the Corinthian congregation between the temple of God (First Corinthians 3) and the temple of the Holy Ghost (First Corinthians 6.19). They are not the same temple. First Corinthians 3.11-16 refers to the congregation and First Corinthians 6.19 refers to a believer’s physical body.

Please turn to First Corinthians 6.18-20 and Paul’s phrase “the temple of the Holy Ghost.”

 

18    Flee fornication. Every sin that a man doeth is without the body; but he that committeth fornication sinneth against his own body.

19    What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost which is in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own?

20    For ye are bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God’s.

 

Verses 9-20 of this chapter deal with sins committed by individuals, with the word body when it is used in this chapter not being a metaphor for anything but a body meaning only a Christian’s physical body. That understood, verse 18 addresses the sin of fornication and the fact that such a sex sin is committed by a perpetrator against his own body. In verse 19 Paul reveals to his readers, who were demonstrably ignorant about the sanctity of the Christian’s body, that each Christian’s physical body is “the temple of the Holy Ghost” who indwells each child of God. Verse 20, because of that, and in light of the fact that believers are bought with a price, we are urged to “glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God’s.”

To clarify, First Corinthians 6.9-20 does not make use of the term body as a metaphor for the church of Jesus Christ, but shows that each Christian’s body is the actual temple of the Holy Spirit because of His indwelling presence.

 

Next, THERE IS THE TEMPLE OF GOD

 

My conviction is that the temple of God and the temple of the Holy Spirit are not the same. Turn to First Corinthians 3.6-17 and read along with me:

 

6      I have planted, Apollos watered; but God gave the increase.

7      So then neither is he that planteth any thing, neither he that watereth; but God that giveth the increase.

8      Now he that planteth and he that watereth are one: and every man shall receive his own reward according to his own labour.

9      For we are labourers together with God: ye are God’s husbandry, ye are God’s building.

10    According to the grace of God which is given unto me, as a wise masterbuilder, I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon. But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon.

11    For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.

12    Now if any man build upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble;

13    Every man’s work shall be made manifest: for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire; and the fire shall try every man’s work of what sort it is.

14    If any man’s work abide which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward.

15    If any man’s work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.

16    Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?

17    If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are.

 

Allow me a brief comment or two on each of these verses:

 

6      I have planted, Apollos watered; but God gave the increase.

 

Here at the beginning of the passage the apostle suggests a garden metaphor, likening the Corinthian church to a garden that he planted, that Apollos watered in ministry, but that God actually grew.

 

7      So then neither is he that planteth any thing, neither he that watereth; but God that giveth the increase.

 

As a growing garden, in Paul’s metaphor, he that plants and he that waters are not really important, since it is God Who gives the increase.

 

8      Now he that planteth and he that watereth are one: and every man shall receive his own reward according to his own labour.

 

Notice both the unity Paul calls attention to between he that plants and he that waters, as well as his introduction of each person who labors being rewarded according to his labor. We are still with the church of Jesus Christ as garden metaphor at this point.

 

9      For we are labourers together with God: ye are God’s husbandry, ye are God’s building.

 

Three distinct ideas in this brief verse. First, our dependency as laborers with God. Next, the Corinthian church is God’s husbandry (“ye are God’s husbandry”), with this gardening metaphor. Finally, Paul changes the metaphor from the church of Jesus Christ is a garden to the church of Jesus Christ is a building (“God’s building”).

 

10    According to the grace of God which is given unto me, as a wise masterbuilder, I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon. But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon.

 

Paul, by God’s grace, functioned as a wise masterbuilder, laying the foundation upon which others would labor to build. Then he issues a warning, cautioning every man about how he would build on that foundation Paul laid. Thus, the metaphor has been completely changed at this point from the church as a growing garden to the church of Jesus Christ as a building being built. What do you think, invisible or visible? Disassembled stones and boards here and there, or visible order and construction underway?

 

11    For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.

 

The only foundation upon which this building metaphor, this church of Jesus Christ, can appropriately be laid is Jesus Christ.

 

12    Now if any man build upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble;

 

Continuing the building metaphor, Paul now introduces two completely different kinds of categories of building materials for the construction of a building. Gold, silver, and precious stones are materials used in the construction of what kind of building? Correct, a place of worship, a temple. And what kind of structure is fabricated from wood, hay, and stubble? A hovel, a shabby place for the poor to dwell in.

 

13    Every man’s work shall be made manifest: for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire; and the fire shall try every man’s work of what sort it is.

 

Here Paul introduces the thought of future judgment, likening it to fire that will try every man’s work of what sort it is. How does it hold up when you pass it through the fire?

 

14    If any man’s work abide which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward.

 

If what you build the building with holds up to the fire of judgment you will be rewarded.

 

15    If any man’s work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.

 

If the material with which you build the building is consumed by the fire of judgment, because it is of inferior quality, then you will suffer loss. And what will he lose? “. . . he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.” This means no rewards will be given because of the inferior quality of the materials used to build the building. The metaphor referring of course to the church of Jesus Christ, the member of the church certainly being saved by God’s grace but entering heaven unrewarded due to the inferior quality of his contribution to the growth of the building. However, be mindful of the kind of building that is being built in this metaphor.

 

16    Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?

 

Addressing the obvious ignorance of the unspiritual Corinthian church members, Paul points out two pertinent facts for their edification: First, their congregation is the temple of God (“Know ye not that ye are the temple of God?”). As well, the Spirit of God dwells in their congregation, thereby making their church (and every other church) a temple of God. What a revelation for that dysfunctional congregation. “Our church is the temple of God!” “The Spirit of God dwells in our congregation!”

 

17    If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are.

 

Four things here: First, the words defile and destroy are the same Greek word, suggesting that God will harm you if you harm a church congregation, not that God will annihilate someone for harming a congregation. Second, the law of sowing and reaping applies to those who harm churches and their members. Third, the temple of God by virtue of His presence is holy. And finally, Paul reiterates that the Corinthian congregation, the church of Jesus Christ, is the temple of God.

 

Finally, A CONCLUSION DRAWN FROM THE TEMPLE OF GOD METAPHOR

 

Keeping in mind that the Corinthian church was a very troubled congregation in which the membership was immature, profoundly ignorant about many things, and not very spiritual, one inspired approach Paul found useful to minister grace to them was to alert them to the nature of their congregation, the sanctity of their congregation, and the rewards connected to their involvement in their congregation.

With respect to the nature of their congregation, the first epistle to the Corinthians establishes the existence of two temples they apparently had previously been unaware of, the temple of God and the temple of the Holy Spirit, the two temples not being the same. The temple of the Holy Spirit is actually each Christian’s physical body, First Corinthians 6.19, so indicated by Paul as a means of convincing them that they had no right as believers to engage in the practice of sexual sins, which would defile the Christian’s body, the temple of the Holy Spirit. The temple of God, on the other hand, refers to the entire congregation (never to a physical building). The church of Jesus Christ is likened to a building, according to Paul’s metaphor in First Corinthians 3.6-17, and is progressively revealed in that passage to be a special kind of building, the temple of God, but never what we understand to be the church house. Therefore, the quality of each member’s participation and contribution to the growth of the church should reflect the type of building it is. The imagery of gold, silver, and precious stones are likened to the careful and devoted service of a craftsman engaged in the construction of a temple. The imagery of wood, hay, and stubble are the building materials of a shanty, and reflect a halfhearted and lackadaisical approach to Christian ministry in and through the church that greatly undervalues the importance to God of the church of Jesus Christ.

With respect to the sanctity of their congregation, Paul’s metaphor comparing the church of Jesus Christ to the temple of God establishes the church of Jesus Christ as set apart for God’s use. The church of Jesus Christ is not, therefore, a human contrivance that serves a pragmatic purpose for the convenience of Christians. It was brought into existence by the Lord Jesus Christ Himself during His earthly ministry, given a charge (the Great Commission), provided with authority (Matthew 18.15-20), and established on a principle truth (Matthew 16.13-19). Add to these vital truths the presence of the one true and living God in the midst of the church (After all what is a temple but a place where God actually dwells?), and the sanctity of the church, the sacredness of the congregation (despite its appearances in the sight of men) is established. Just as no Jewish person would dare violate the sanctity of the Temple of Herod in Jerusalem, so no informed and spiritual Christian should dare to violate the sanctity of the temple of God in Corinth, or in Ephesus, or in Philippi, or in Jerusalem, or in Antioch. And for those who do not know better, a warning is issued by Paul in First Corinthians 3.17:

 

“If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are.”

 

With respect to the rewards connected to their involvement in their congregation, Paul declares a truth which most Protestants simply cannot wrap their minds around because of their misinterpretation of and undervaluing of the congregation’s identity as the church of Jesus Christ. Allow me to explain: Judgment is an important theme in the New Testament, with 74 verses making specific mention of judgment. However, it is in Romans 14.10, when rebuking Christians for their judgmental attitudes toward other believers, that Paul first mentions the Judgment Seat of Christ, thereby establishing that individual Christians will be judged by the Savior, not to determine their eternal destiny (which is a matter settled once and for all by faith in Christ), but to serve as the basis for rewards given by the Savior to believers:

 

“But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou set at nought thy brother? for we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.”

 

The matter of a Christian’s judgment is raised again in First Corinthians 4.1-5:

 

1      Let a man so account of us, as of the ministers of Christ, and stewards of the mysteries of God.

2      Moreover it is required in stewards, that a man be found faithful.

3      But with me it is a very small thing that I should be judged of you, or of man’s judgment: yea, I judge not mine own self.

4      For I know nothing by myself; yet am I not hereby justified: but he that judgeth me is the Lord.

5      Therefore judge nothing before the time, until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the hearts: and then shall every man have praise of God.

 

Note that Paul makes reference to the Judgment Seat of Christ once more to the Corinthians in Second Corinthians 5.10:

 

“For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that every one may receive the things done in his body, according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.”

 

While such a notable theologian as J. Dwight Pentecost recognized that First Corinthians 3.11-16 spoke to the matter of the Judgment Seat of Christ, he did so while in rather typical fashion misunderstanding the nature of the temple of God metaphor that Paul used in that passage.[6] First Corinthians 3.11-16 establishes the context of the Christian’s ministry and service that will be evaluated at the Judgment Seat of Christ. That context is the congregation, the church of Jesus Christ, and the quality (not quantity) of one’s investment into the ministry of building that metaphorical building described by Paul as the temple of God. Thus, the notion that a Christian’s random and unauthorized ministry activity outside his congregation, no matter how sincerely motivated, will be found acceptable by the Savior, when He has created a specific entity called the church of Jesus Christ in which He wants His people to be accountable and involved in ministry, and where they we will be prepared and involved in that ministry, is dreaming. The Lord Jesus Christ will someday sit in judgment upon the works and service of Christians in and through the church of Jesus Christ, the temple of God. Thus, it is your ministry in and through Calvary Road Baptist Church that will be scrutinized by the Lord Jesus Christ on the bema seat of judgment.

 

God has always desired the means whereby He can dwell in the midst of His people. He communed with Adam in the cool of the evening in the Garden of Eden, if I correctly understand the implication of Genesis 3.8, until of course Adam’s sin made that impossible. When the children of Israel were delivered from slavery in Egypt and camped at the foot of Mount Sinai, God instructed Moses to erect a tabernacle “that I may dwell among them.”[7] Of course, when the Temple was subsequently constructed and dedicated by Solomon in Jerusalem, the glory of God came down and “the glory of the LORD . . . filled the house of God.”[8] The Temple was God’s place of dwelling for centuries until the glory of God departed in response to the unbridled wickedness of the people and the Temple was later destroyed by the Babylonians.[9] Centuries passed with no apparent provision for God to dwell in the midst of His people. Then His Son Jesus Christ was born of a virgin and dwelt among men for thirty-three and a half years. But He was then rejected and crucified. “He came unto his own, and his own received him not,” John 1.11. However, during the three and one-half years of His earthly ministry that preceded His crucifixion He established His church.[10]

The establishing of the church is important because God devised two means by which He would dwell among His people during this era in which we live. On one hand there is the indwelling Spirit of God, given to every believer in Jesus Christ, thereby making him by the Spirit’s presence the temple of the Holy Spirit. The other means by which God dwells among His people resides in the fact that the church of Jesus Christ is a temple, and a temple is by definition a place where God dwells. In fact, God does dwell in our midst, showing that our church is important to God and by His presence making our church holy.

Therefore, how optional do you think a Christian’s membership in a church is thereby seen to be by God the Father, by the Lord Jesus Christ, and by the Holy Spirit? And when you consider that your participation in your church will be judged by the Savior at the Judgment Seat of Christ based upon the qualities represented in the metaphor by gold, silver, and precious stones, how optional is your involvement in your church’s ministry?



[1] Bauer, Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and other Early Christian Literature, (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 2000), page 470.

[2] Ibid., pages 665-666.

[3] See Gerhard Kittel, Editor, Theological Dictionary Of The New Testament, Vol III, (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1965), pages 232-247 and Theological Dictionary Of The New Testament, Vol IV, (Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1967), pages 880-890.

[4] Revelation 3.12; 7.15; 11.1-2, 19; 14.15, 17; 15.5-6, 8; 16.1, 17; 21.22

[5] Fritz Rienecker & Cleon Rogers, Linguistic Key To The Greek New Testament, (Grand Rapids, MI: Regency Reference Library, 1980), page 527.

[6] J. Dwight Pentecost, Things To Come, (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1958), pages 205, 412.

[7] Exodus 25.8; 29.45-46

[8] 2 Chronicles 5.14

[9] Ezekiel 10.18-22; 11.22-25; 24.21-27

[10] Matthew 10.1-4; 1 Corinthians 12.28


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pastor@calvaryroadbaptist.org