Calvary Road Baptist Church

“GOD’S GRACE MINISTERED TO THOSE OBEYING CHRIST’S COMMAND THAT SINNERS STRIVE TO ENTER IN AT THE STRAIT GATE”

Luke 13.24

 PART SIX

Do you think false hopes and pretenders who think they are Christians are not a profoundly serious problem? Think again. It was an issue that the Lord Jesus Christ spoke to in His famous Sermon on the Mount. It was an issue that the Lord Jesus Christ addressed in what is perhaps His most important parable, the Parable of the Sower, wherein three of the four soils represented the responses of those still unsaved, and two of the three responses illustrating the false hopes of sinners who thought they were saved but who were still lost. It was also in issue that Luke was inspired to present to readers in a most forceful manner as he included in Luke chapter thirteen both historical events used by the Savior and parables taught by the Savior to explain why there so few who seem to have responded to the gospel of God’s grace without being truly saved from their sins.

We have also looked at many figures in God’s Word who exemplify false hopes and fruitless professions, having considered Cain, Esau, the prophet Balaam, Judas Iscariot, Simon the magician in Acts chapter eight, the fornicator written about in First Corinthians chapter five, Demas the colleague who forsook Paul while he was imprisoned in Rome, Hymenaeus and Alexander who are mentioned in First Timothy chapter one, professing Christians who refused to support their families referred to in First Timothy 5.8, and Hymenaeus and Philetus who are identified in Second Timothy chapter two.

The Apostle Paul mentions Alexander the coppersmith in Second Timothy 4.14-15:

 14     Alexander the coppersmith did me much evil: the Lord reward him according to his works:

15     Of whom be thou ware also; for he hath greatly withstood our words.

 This man did much evil to the Apostle Paul, who in turn warns Timothy about the danger Alexander posed. Though Paul does not elaborate concerning the evil Alexander did, Paul’s primary charge against him was “he hath greatly withstood our words.” This indictment very clearly indicates that Alexander was in the church and not outside the church, since it would have been quite normal for an unchurched man to greatly withstand Paul’s words, and would not have been worthy of mention. To merit such a comment from Paul certainly meant Alexander was actually in the congregation, was a church member, and certainly had professed Christ in convincing enough manner to be baptized in order to become a part of the congregation. Within a church congregation, it would be considered very unusual to resist Paul’s words. After all, since God resisteth the proud, and giveth grace to the humble, James 4.6 and First Peter 5.5, and people who are humble have a teachable spirit, someone in the church who did not have a teachable spirit, who was not genuinely humble, who resisted Paul’s words of instruction and exhortation, would be unusual to say the least. As well, in light of the fact that grace is most effectively ministered through the spoken word, withstanding the apostle’s words was a very serious deviation for professing Christians, and a real indication Alexander was not a believer, but a man who had embraced a false hope.

In Titus 1.9-16, we see the Apostle Paul’s strongly worded description of those who profess that they know God, but are in reality entertaining false hopes:

 9      Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers.

10     For there are many unruly and vain talkers and deceivers, specially they of the circumcision:

11     Whose mouths must be stopped, who subvert whole houses, teaching things which they ought not, for filthy lucre’s sake.

12     One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, said, The Cretians are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies.

13     This witness is true. Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith;

14     Not giving heed to Jewish fables, and commandments of men, that turn from the truth.

15     Unto the pure all things are pure: but unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure; but even their mind and conscience is defiled.

16     They profess that they know God; but in works they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate.

 The Apostle Paul pronounces his inspired judgment about the fruitless professors troubling Titus when he writes in verse 16, “They profess that they know God; but in works they deny him, being abominable, and disobedient, and unto every good work reprobate.” Thus, we see the common problem of those whose verbal profession and confession is at odds with their lifestyle, conduct, and ministry, or as Paul says, works. Sadly, in our day such inconsistencies are typically explained away as carnal Christianity, being a backslider. Others who profess Christ exhibit such a spirit of self-sufficiency that they make no connection between their conduct and the absence of fruit that indicates the presence of spiritual life. However, Paul’s is a more realistic appraisal of the problem. Such people are quite simply lost. In verses 10 and 11, we see their primary sins. Unruly talk, vain talk, deceptive talk, from people who teach things they should not teach, and doing it all for money (or some type of personal gain), they subvert whole houses. Whole families are ruined, children, parents, grandparents, in-laws, all of them wrecked by the nonsense these people teach. Thus, once again, it is their out of control mouths that cause the damage. This is why Paul writes, “Whose mouths must be stopped.” The problem, of course, is that rarely is anyone ever successful in stopping the mouth of such a person. If it is a man, the boorish fellow simply will not listen to anyone. If it is a woman, she has almost certainly married a man who is far too wimpish to confront her about the fires kindled by her tongue.[1] I am reminded of Miriam, who spoke against her brother, Moses, until God shut her mouth by giving her leprosy.[2] There is also Jezebel, who was a terror to her husband King Ahab and also to the prophet Elijah, and who was only silent when she was thrown from her palace window by her eunuchs at the command of Jehu.[3] How is the pastor of a church to deal with such a problem? They cannot toss women out of palace windows. Neither can they bark an order to shut up to such a woman. There are, however, two ways a pastor can address this problem: First, according to verse 9, by “Holding fast the faithful word as he hath been taught, that he may be able by sound doctrine both to exhort and to convince the gainsayers.” Additionally, according to verse 13, “This witness is true. Wherefore rebuke them sharply, that they may be sound in the faith.” Verse 9 directs the spiritual leader to faithfully preach the Word to the gainsayers. However, pay close attention to those Titus is directed to rebuke sharply, in verse 13. Not the gainsayers whose mouths must be stopped, but those who are foolish enough to listen to them. In this passage, Paul directs Titus to sharply rebuke the Christians who gave such people an audience. If God’s people will heed Titus’ rebuke, and they will stop listening to the nasty talking lost people who pretend to be, or who once pretended to be, Christians, they may become sound in the faith. How would you respond to a sharp rebuke? Dr. Timothy Lin used to say that sharp rebukes make strong Christians, though many these days do not respond well when they are only mildly rebuked, so that they resist being dealt with in a scriptural way. I summarize the essence of what Paul is here writing to Titus. Those with false hopes can sometimes be very opinionated people, who are quite willing to open their mouths and speak to anyone who will listen about almost anything, including that which they know nothing about, the gospel of God’s grace and related issues. However, when the lost person is talking the wrong person is speaking. Lost people need to be quiet and listen, because they have nothing of substance to say about matters of spiritual importance. You will become a better Christian when you stop listen to the babblings of the lost. Why should you not listen to them? The Apostle Paul tells us what we can figure out for ourselves if we pay close attention to the venom they spew forth. They deny Christ, they are abominable, they are disobedient, and unto every good work they are reprobate. Do you need to listen to such a person? No, you do not need to listen to such a person. Far better for you to be sharply rebuked for listening to such a person than to continue listening to one like that.

Luke’s record of the Apostle Paul’s final meeting with the elders from Ephesus he so deeply loved, is our next consideration. Acts 20.25-35 is that portion of Luke’s history of particular interest to us:

 25     And now, behold, I know that ye all, among whom I have gone preaching the kingdom of God, shall see my face no more.

26     Wherefore I take you to record this day, that I am pure from the blood of all men.

27     For I have not shunned to declare unto you all the counsel of God.

28     Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood.

29     For I know this, that after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not sparing the flock.

30     Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them.

31     Therefore watch, and remember, that by the space of three years I ceased not to warn every one night and day with tears.

32     And now, brethren, I commend you to God, and to the word of his grace, which is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance among all them which are sanctified.

33     I have coveted no man’s silver, or gold, or apparel.

34     Yea, ye yourselves know, that these hands have ministered unto my necessities, and to them that were with me.

35     I have shewed you all things, how that so labouring ye ought to support the weak, and to remember the words of the Lord Jesus, how he said, It is more blessed to give than to receive.

 This wonderful passage provides important guidance for every pastor wise enough to heed its counsel. Paul’s warning about false professors who will pose great danger to the congregation is in verses 29-30. Notice that these two verses refer to two different kinds of threats, though both kinds of threats come from those likely to have embraced false hopes. In verse 29, Paul said, “after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among you.” However, notice in verse 17, to whom Paul is speaking. “the elders of the church.” Thus, once Paul is no longer around (to serve as a diligent and skilled watchman to guard the safety of the flock), protection of the congregation will fall upon ministers somewhat less skilled or diligent than Paul. This will enable grievous wolves to enter in. That is, grievous wolves will presumably come in from outside the congregation to the circle of spiritual leaders within the congregation. To refer to them as grievous wolves is to label them as lost. Thus, churches need to be extremely cautious about the spiritual condition of anyone being considered for spiritual leadership. If a grievous wolf is allowed in as a church leader, the flock will not be spared. In verse 30, Paul said, “Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them.” Here Paul warns of those already within the congregation and already installed in some position of leadership. Two things about them that give them away as a danger: First, they speak perverse things. That is, what they say is distorted, unbalanced, and does not reflect the Christian faith. Second, they draw away disciples after them. The proper goal for a spiritual leader is to make disciples of Christ, not establish a cohort of men whose allegiance is to him. There is far too much of this cult of personality evidenced in the gospel ministry these days. In order for men or women to accomplish the destruction Paul warned of, they would first have to profess to be Christians and become members of the church via believer baptism. However, eventually their conduct will show that such are not truly born again, exhibiting pride and seeking prominence instead of the humility and meekness the Word of God shows to be so pleasing to God. Is it not sad that someone exposed to the gospel would choose the low road of clamoring for position instead of the high road of service and ministry to Christ, letting Him do what is necessary to place each person in the position He wants him in? If we are to trust Christ for the salvation of our souls, we should also trust Christ for our position and place of service.

In Christ’s letters to the angels of the churches in Ephesus and Pergamos in Revelation chapter two, we see declarations made by the glorified Lord showing His hatred for deeds of the Nicolaitans and the doctrine of the Nicolaitans. How can we pass by without investigating something the Lord Jesus Christ hates, especially as it impacts on our consideration of false hopes and fruitless professions? Turn to Revelation 2.1-7, which is Christ’s letter to the angel of the church of Ephesus:

 1      Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write; These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks;

2      I know thy works, and thy labour, and thy patience, and how thou canst not bear them which are evil: and thou hast tried them which say they are apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars:

3      And hast borne, and hast patience, and for my name's sake hast laboured, and hast not fainted.

4      Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast left thy first love.

5      Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do the first works; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy candlestick out of his place, except thou repent.

6      But this thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate.

7      He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God.

 Now read Revelation 2.12-17, Christ’s letter to the church in Pergamos:

 12     And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; These things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges;

13     I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan’s seat is: and thou holdest fast my name, and hast not denied my faith, even in those days wherein Antipas was my faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth.

14     But I have a few things against thee, because thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balac to cast a stumblingblock before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication.

15     So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate.

16     Repent; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of my mouth.

17     He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it.

There were those in the Ephesian congregation and in the Pergamos congregation the Lord Jesus Christ labeled Nicolaitans. Nicolaitanism was a heresy similar to the teaching of Balaam. The name Nicolas means “one who conquers the people.” The early church historian Irenaeus writes that Nicolas, who was made a deacon in Acts 6, was a false believer who later became apostate; but because of his credentials he was able to lead the church astray. And, like Balaam, he led the people into immorality and wickedness. The Nicolaitans, followers of Nicolas, were involved in immorality and assaulted the church with sensual temptations. Clement of Alexandria says, “They abandoned themselves to pleasure like goats, leading a life of self-indulgence.” Their teaching perverted grace and replaced liberty with license.[4] Turn to Acts 6, where we see how this Nicolas came to prominence:

 1      And in those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplied, there arose a murmuring of the Grecians against the Hebrews, because their widows were neglected in the daily ministration.

2      Then the twelve called the multitude of the disciples unto them, and said, It is not reason that we should leave the word of God, and serve tables.

3      Wherefore, brethren, look ye out among you seven men of honest report, full of the Holy Ghost and wisdom, whom we may appoint over this business.

4      But we will give ourselves continually to prayer, and to the ministry of the word.

5      And the saying pleased the whole multitude: and they chose Stephen, a man full of faith and of the Holy Ghost, and Philip, and Prochorus, and Nicanor, and Timon, and Parmenas, and Nicolas a proselyte of Antioch:

6      Whom they set before the apostles: and when they had prayed, they laid their hands on them.

Are you shocked to find such a man as Nicolas included with such a great man of God as Stephen, the first Christian martyr? You need not be surprised. Not only is the heart deceitful above all things, capable of deceiving others as well as self, Jeremiah 17.9, but it is a part of God’s plan to allow tares to exist alongside the wheat. It is part of His plan of dealing with individual Christians to test our loyalties, to put on display our obedience, and to accomplish the outworking of His great plan by creating an environment where faith is indispensable.

A woman named Jezebel is referred to in Revelation 2.18-29:

 18     And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine brass;

19     I know thy works, and charity, and service, and faith, and thy patience, and thy works; and the last to be more than the first.

20     Notwithstanding I have a few things against thee, because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my servants to commit fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols.

21     And I gave her space to repent of her fornication; and she repented not.

22     Behold, I will cast her into a bed, and them that commit adultery with her into great tribulation, except they repent of their deeds.

23     And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works.

24     But unto you I say, and unto the rest in Thyatira, as many as have not this doctrine, and which have not known the depths of Satan, as they speak; I will put upon you none other burden.

25     But that which ye have already hold fast till I come.

26     And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations:

27     And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers: even as I received of my Father.

28     And I will give him the morning star.

29     He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.

 This is the longest of the seven letters to the angels of the churches in Asia, with the city of Thyatira being located about 40 miles east of Pergamos.[5] Lydia, Paul’s first convert in Europe, came from this city, according to Acts 16.14. There is no Biblical record of evangelistic activity in Thyatira, so it may be that the gospel was introduced there by means of Lydia’s witness.[6] Verse 19: “I know thy works, and charity, and service, and faith, and thy patience, and thy works; and the last to be more than the first.” Twice in this verse the Lord Jesus refers to this pastor’s works. Apparently, works were predominant features in his life and ministry, among other very commendable qualities. This fellow is also the first of the pastors to be commended in Revelation chapters two and three for his love. The progression from works, to charity (which is love), to service, and on until we get to works again, shows a development and growth in this man’s life. The Lord Jesus knows everything about this man. He whose eyes are as a “flame of fire” misses nothing. It seems that this pastor has it all. Faith, love, patience, works. He must have been a tremendous servant of God. He exhibited the personality and ethical characteristics that would make an ideal servant of God. Until we read what verse 20 has to say we would be correct in so presuming. Verse 20: “Notwithstanding I have a few things against thee, because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my servants to commit fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols.” After the commendation, the Lord comes back with a severe condemnation of this preacher’s life and ministry. Notice that the condemnation stems, not from what he did, but from what he did not do. He stood by and watched someone else doing wrong without stepping in to put a stop to it. He tolerated in the congregation a woman named Jezebel. I do not know if this was her real name, or if the Lord Jesus was likening her to the Jezebel in the Old Testament, who opposed the ministry of Elijah. I rather think it was the later case. You may remember that the first Jezebel was the wife of wicked King Ahab, king of the northern kingdom of Israel. King Ahab was a perfect example of a spineless jellyfish type of a husband who is ruled over and patronized by a wicked and loudmouthed wife. Amazing, is it not, how frequently such a woman has a big mouth? That observation aside, Ahab’s Jezebel was responsible for the wholesale idolatry that swept across Israel while her pathetic husband quietly occupied the throne. As for the woman the Lord is referring to in Thyatira, I really do doubt that her given name was Jezebel. However, she does seem to be the spiritual twin of the queen of Israel who lived some 550 years before Christ.[7] The woman in this church called herself a prophetess. Apparently, she set herself up as some kind of authority. That is the chief characteristic of a Jezebel, since there is no evidence that the Jezebel of Old Testament time was ever unfaithful to her husband. What we do know about her is that she dominated and manipulated the man she was supposed to submit to. Therefore, a Jezebel is a manipulative wife who speaks out as an authority and who runs her husband. A number of scholars, because of the wording of this verse, are of the opinion that this woman in Thyatira is none other than the wife of the angel of the church in Thyatira.[8] That would mean that the Lord Jesus Christ is harshly rebuking this pastor for not refusing to allow his own wife to pretend she was a God-called spiritual leader. Imagine that. A preacher being called down by the Lord Jesus Christ for not keeping his wife in line, and for allowing her to pawn herself off as being an anointed leader of the congregation, just like he was supposed to be. I wonder what modern-day women preachers, the so-called co-pastor wives that are found in so many Pentecostal churches, and the female pastors in liberal mainline denominational churches say about this passage. I wonder how a man who is married to this kind of woman, who rolls over and allows her to trample him by her words and deeds, can live with himself. I know men whose wives are Jezebels, and I have no respect for them. They are pathetic and despicable excuses for manhood. I am in no way advocating abuse by any husband. I am, however, advocating real manhood in a man, and not wimpy simpering passivity because the pansy is afraid to make his contentious wife angry with him for daring to disagree with her and daring to lead her. Whoever this Jezebel actually was, she taught and seduced Christ’s servants to commit fornication and to eat things offered to idols. In order to do this, she must have set herself up as an authority over the plain teachings of God’s Word. However, is that not what bossy wives and women preachers do today? Sure they do. What does First Timothy 2.11-12 and 3.1-7 say?

 11     Let the woman learn in silence with all subjection.

12    But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence.

1      This is a true saying, If a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work.

2      A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach;

3      Not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre; but patient, not a brawler, not covetous;

4      One that ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjection with all gravity;

5      (For if a man know not how to rule his own house, how shall he take care of the church of God?)

6      Not a novice, lest being lifted up with pride he fall into the condemnation of the devil.

7      Moreover he must have a good report of them which are without; lest he fall into reproach and the snare of the devil.

This Jezebel apparently taught believers that they did not really need to separate themselves from their past pagan practices. Though it may be difficult and trying for you to cut the ties to your pagan religious past, you must. Cut yourself off from Roman Catholicism, from Mormonism, from Pentecostalism, from Buddhism, and from your secret societies like Masons, Shriners, Easter Star, Job’s daughters, and DeMolay. The fornication here could refer to either literal fornication or spiritual fornication. She may have led people into sexual sin, especially if she indulged in paganism, which was oftentimes nothing more than religious harlotry. Greek temples, those beautiful ones whose remnants are seen in National Geographic Magazine? They were nothing more than brothels, where religious prostitution and sanctioned sodomy took place under the guise of worship. If this Jezebel did not lead people into committing physical fornication, it could be that what is meant here is that she led them into idolatry, which is spiritual fornication. When a person is being dealt with by the Holy Spirit, if he wants to be saved he must sever all religious ties to any false religious system to which he once belonged. To continue ties with the past is to commit spiritual fornication and adultery. This is why I am a separatist. We at Calvary Road Baptist Church do not mix and mingle with false religions, even the ones who claim to be Christians. Verse 21: “And I gave her space to repent of her fornication; and she repented not.” The Lord gave her opportunity to turn from her sins and be saved, and she repented not. This shows both the long-suffering mercy of the Lord Jesus Christ, as well as the lost condition and stubbornness of this wicked Jezebel. However, we see something else here. The word “space” translates the Greek word “cronoV,” referring to “time.” In other words, the Lord Jesus Christ gave to this woman Jezebel time to turn from her sins and be saved before He moved in judgment against her. This shows us that she could not just decide to be saved anytime she wanted to. Such a notion that a sinner chooses the time and place to come to Christ is unscriptural. It is the heresy of Pelagianism.

Here is a simple test of Christian orthodoxy. Ask a fellow, ask a preacher, “Who decides when a sinner gets saved, the sinner or God?” If the person you ask says “the sinner,” you know you are dealing with a fellow who is not an orthodox Christian, because Jesus said, “No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him.”[9] When you travel, remember to go to church on Sunday wherever you are. Before the service begins, you may have opportunity to chat for a moment with the preacher. Perhaps you can then ask, “Pastor, who decides when a sinner gets saved, the sinner, or God?” I am not suggesting that you argue with the pastor, or express your disagreement with him in any way. However, his answer may help you to gage the sermon you are about to listen to.

What kind of judgment awaits this Jezebel? We see the specifics in the next verse, but the judgment will necessarily be God’s wrath against this unsaved woman. How do I know she was an unsaved woman? Because fornication and idolatry are sins committed by unsaved people, unless you or one of your loved ones commit them. Then you can be saved and still habitually commit such sins. Of course, I am being sarcastic. Fornicators and idolaters are unsaved people! If someone’s pattern of life is to have sex with someone he is not married to, even if he is in love, then he is not a Christian. As well, if you are not loosed from your practice of idolatry, you are not a Christian. First Corinthians 6.9-10:

 9      Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind,

10     Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.

 Therefore, since this Jezebel would not come down off her high horse, since she would not disavow herself of her fraudulent claim of spiritual authority, since she would not abandon her fornication once and for all, she is doomed. There is no need to examine the rest of what the Savior said to this pastor, since the object of our study at present is to show that false hopes, fruitless pretenders, and fake Christians have always been issues for real Christians and faithful pastors to contend with. Do women like Jezebel in the church suggest there is something wrong with Christianity? No. The presence of such women as Jezebel in the church is precisely what one should expect in a spiritual warfare such as we are engaged in. False hopes, fruitless fig trees, vine branches that bear no fruit, are all a part of this age long conflict we are engaged in as we struggle for the souls of men. To pretend otherwise is naive in the extreme.



[1] James 3.2-12

[2] Numbers 12

[3] 2 Kings 9.30-33

[4] See footnote for Revelation 2.6 from John MacArthur, The MacArthur Study Bible, (Nashville: Word Publishing, 1997), page 1994.

[5]  See footnote for Revelation 2.12, Tim LaHaye Prophecy Study Bible, (Chattanooga, TN: AMG Publishers, 2000), page 1367.

[6]  Walvoord, page 72.

[7]  See note on First and Second Kings, Author and Date, John MacArthur, The MacArthur Study Bible, (Nashville: Word Publishing, 1997), page 467.

[8]  Walvoord, page 73.

[9]  John 6.44



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pastor@calvaryroadbaptist.org