|Christian and Hopeful
ow I saw in my
dream that CHRISTIAN went not forth alone; for there was one whose
name was HOPEFUL (being so made by the beholding of CHRISTIAN and
FAITHFUL, in their words and behaviour, in their sufferings at the
fair), who joined himself unto him;
and entering into a brotherly covenant, told him that
he would be his companion. Thus one died to bear testimony to the truth,
and another rises out of his ashes to be a companion with CHRISTIAN in
his pilgrimage. This HOPEFUL also told CHRISTIAN that there were many
more of the men in the fair that would take their time and follow after.
o I saw that,
quickly after they were got out of the fair, they overtook one that was
going before them, whose name was BY-ENDS; So they said to him,
"What countryman, sir? and how far go you this way?" He told
them that he came from the town of Fairspeech; and he was going to the
Celestial City (but told them not his name).
"From Fairspeech!" said CHRISTIAN; "is there any that be
good live there?"
- "When he speaketh fair,
believe him not: for there are seven abominations in his
"Yes," said BY-ENDS, "I hope."
"Pray, sir, what may I call you?" said CHRISTIAN.
I am a stranger to you, and you to me: if you be going this way, I shall
be glad of your company: if not, I must be content.
"This town of Fairspeech," said CHRISTIAN, "I have heard
of; and, as I remember, they say it is a wealthy place."
Yes, I will assure you that it is; and I have very many rich kindred
Pray who are your kindred there, if a man may be so bold?
Almost the whole town: and in particular, my Lord TURN-ABOUT; my Lord
TIME-SERVER; my Lord FAIRSPEECH (from whose ancestors that town first
took its name); also Mr. SMOOTH-MAN; Mr. FACING-BOTH-WAYS; Mr.
ANY-THING; and the parson of our parish, Mr. TWO-TONGUES, was my
mother's own brother by father's side. And to tell you the truth, I am
become a gentleman of good quality; yet my great-grandfather was but a
waterman, looking one way and rowing another-- and I got most of my
estate by the same occupation.
Are you a married man?
Yes; and my wife is a very virtuous woman--the daughter of a virtuous
woman. She is my Lady FEIGNING'S daughter; therefore she came of a very
honourable family, and is arrived to such a pitch of breeding, that she
knows how to carry it to all, even to prince and peasant. 'Tis true, we
somewhat differ in religion from those of the stricter sort; yet but in
two small points: First, we never strive against wind and tide;
secondly, we are always most zealous when religion goes in his silver
slippers--we love much to walk with him in the street if the sun shines,
and the people applaud it.
Then CHRISTIAN stepped a little aside to his fellow HOPEFUL, saying,
"It runs in my mind that this is one BY-ENDS, of Fairspeech and if
it be he, we have as very a knave in our company as dwells in all these
parts." Then said HOPEFUL, "Ask him; methinks he should not be
ashamed of his name." So CHRISTIAN came up with him again, and
said, "Sir, you talk as if you knew something more than all the
world doth; and if I take not my mark amiss, I deem I have half a guess
of you: Is not your name Mr. BY-ENDS, of Fairspeech?"
That is not my name: but indeed it is a nickname that is given me by
some that cannot abide me: and I must be content to bear it as a
reproach, as other good men have borne theirs before me.
But did you never give an occasion to men to call you by this name?
Never, never! the worst that ever I did to give them an occasion to give
me this name was, that I had always the luck to jump in my judgment with
the present way of the times, whatever it was, and my chance was to gain
thereby; but if things are thus cast upon me, let me count them a
blessing, but let not the malicious load me therefore with reproach.
I thought indeed that you were the man that I had heard of; and to tell
you what I think, I fear this name belongs to you more properly than you
are willing we should think it doth.
Well, if you will thus imagine, I cannot help it. You shall find me a
fair company-keeper, if you will still admit me your associate.
If you will go with us, you must go against wind and tide, the which, I
perceive, is against your opinion; you must also own religion in his
rags as well as when in his silver slippers; and stand by him too when
bound in irons, as well as when he walks the streets with applause.
You must not impose nor lord it over my faith; leave me to my liberty,
and let me go with you.
Not a step farther, unless you will do, in what I propound, as we.
Then said BY-ENDS, "I shall never desert my old principles, since
they are harmless and profitable. If I may not go with you, I must do as
I did before you overtook me: even go by myself, until some overtake me
that will be glad of my company."
Now I saw in my dream that CHRISTIAN and HOPEFUL forsook him, and kept
their distance before him; but one of them looking back, saw three men
following Mr. BY-ENDS; and behold, as they came up with him, he made
them a very low bow, and they also gave him a compliment. The men's
names were, Mr. HOLD-THE-WORLD, Mr. MONEY-LOVE, and Mr. SAVE-ALL
--men that Mr. BY-ENDS had formerly been acquainted with; for in their
minority they were schoolfellows, and were taught by one Mr. GRIPEMAN, a
schoolmaster in Love-gain, which is a market town in the county of
Coveting, in the north. This schoolmaster taught them the art of
getting, either by violence, fraud, flattery, lying, or by putting on a
guise of religion; and these four gentlemen had attained much of the art
of their master, so that they could each of them have kept such a school
Well, when they had, as I said, thus saluted each other, Mr. MONEY-LOVE
said to Mr. BY-ENDS, "Who are they upon the road before us?"
For CHRISTIAN and HOPEFUL were yet within view.
They are a couple of far countrymen, that, their mode, are going on
Alas! why did they not stay, that we might have had their good company;
for they, and we, and you, sir, I hope, are all going on a pilgrimage?
We are so, indeed; but the men before us are so rigid, and love so much
their own notions, and do also so lightly esteem the opinions of others,
that even if a man be never so godly, yet, if he jumps not with them in
all things, they thrust him quite out of their company.
That's bad; but we read of some that are righteous overmuch, and such
men's rigidness prevails with them to judge and condemn all but
themselves. But, I pray, what and how many were the things wherein you
Why, they, after their headstrong manner, conclude that it is their duty
to rush on their journey all weathers; and I am for waiting for wind and
tide. They are for hazarding all for God at a clap; and I am for taking
all advantages to secure my life and estate. They are for holding their
notions, though all other men be against them; but I am for religion in
and so far as the times and my safety will bear it. They are for
religion when in rags and contempt; but I am for him when he walks in
his golden slippers in the sunshine, and with applause.
Aye, and hold you there still, good Mr. BY-ENDS; for, for my part, I can
count him but a fool, that, having the liberty to keep what he has,
shall be so unwise as to lose it. Let us be wise as serpents; 'tis best
to make hay when the sun shines: you see how the bee lies still all
winter, and bestirs her only when she can have profit with pleasure. God
sends sometimes rain, and sometimes sunshine; if they be such fools to
go through the first, yet let us be content to take fair weather along
with us. For my part, I like that religion best that will stand with the
security of God's good blessings unto us; for who can imagine, that is
ruled by his reason, since God has bestowed upon us the good things of
this life, but that he would have us keep them for his sake? Abraham and
Solomon grew rich in religion. And Job says, "That a good man shall
lay up gold as dust." But he must not be such as the men before us,
if they be as you have described them.
I think that we are all agreed in this matter; and therefore there need
be no more words about it.
No, there need be no more words about this matter indeed; for he that
believes neither Scripture nor reason (and you see we have both on our
side), neither knows his own liberty nor seeks his own safety.
My brethren, we are, as you see, going all on pilgrimage; and for our
better diversion from things that are bad, give me leave to propound
unto you this question:
Suppose a man--a minister, or a tradesman,--should have an advantage lie
before him to get the good blessings of this life; yet so as that he can
by no means come by them except-- in appearance at least--he becomes
extraordinarily zealous in some points of religion that he meddled not
with before: may he not use this means to attain his end, and yet be a
right honest man?
I see the bottom of your question; and, with these gentlemen's good
leave, I will endeavour to shape you an answer. And first, to speak to
your question as it concerns a minister himself: Suppose a minister, a
worthy man, possessed but of a very small benefice, and has in his eye a
greater, more fat and plump by far; he has also, now an opportunity of
getting of it; yet so as by being more studious, by preaching more
frequently and zealously, and because the temper of the people requires
it, by altering of some of his principles; for my part, I see no reason
but a man may do this--provided he has a call. Aye, and more a great
deal besides, and yet be an honest man. For why?
- 1. His desire of a greater benefice is lawful (this
cannot be contradicted), since 'tis set before him by Providence;
so, then, he may get it if he can, making no question, for
2. Besides, his desire after that benefice makes him more studious,
a more zealous preacher, and so on; and so makes him a better man.
Yea, makes him better improve his parts, which is according to the
mind of God.
3. Now, as for his complying with the temper of his people by
dissenting--to serve them--some of his principles, this argues, 1st,
that he is of a self-denying temper; 2nd, of a sweet and willing
deportment; 3rd, and so more fit for the ministerial function.
4. I conclude then, that a minister that changes a small for a
great, should not for so doing be judged as covetous; but rather,
since he is improved in his parts and industry thereby, be counted
as one that pursues his call, and the opportunity put into his hand
to do good.
And now to the second part of the question, which
concerns the tradesman you mentioned: Suppose such one to have but a
poor employ in the world, but by becoming religious he may mend his
market, perhaps get a rich wife, or more and far better customers to his
shop--for my part, I see no reason but that this may be lawfully done.
- 1. To become religious is a virtue, by what means
soever a man becomes so.
2. Nor is it unlawful to get a rich wife, or more custom to my shop.
3. Besides, the man that gets these by becoming religious, gets that
which is good of them that are good, by becoming good himself; so,
then, here is a good wife, and good customers, and good gain, and
all these by becoming religious, which is good. Therefore, to become
religious, to get all these, is a good and profitable design.
This answer, thus made by this Mr. MONEY-LOVE to Mr.
BY-ENDS' question, was highly applauded by them all; therefore they
concluded upon the whole, that it was most wholesome and advantageous.
And because, as they thought, no man was able to contradict it; and
because CHRISTIAN and HOPEFUL were yet within call, they joyfully agreed
to assault them with the question as soon as they overtook them, and the
rather because they had opposed Mr. BY-ENDS before. So they called after
them; and they stopped, and stood still till they came up to them. But
they concluded as they went, that not Mr. BY-ENDS, but old Mr.
HOLD-THE-WORLD, should propound the question to them; because, as they
supposed, their answer to him would be without the remainder of that
heat that was kindled betwixt Mr. BY-ENDS and them at their parting a
So they came up to each other; and after a short salutation, Mr.
HOLD-THE-WORLD propounded the question to CHRISTIAN and his fellow, and
bid them to answer if they could.
Then said CHRISTIAN, "Even a babe in religion may answer ten
thousand such questions. For if it be unlawful to follow Christ for
loaves, as it is:
- "After these things Jesus went
over the sea of Galilee, which is the sea of Tiberias. And a
great multitude followed him, because they saw his miracles which he
did on them that were diseased. And Jesus went up into a mountain,
and there he sat with his disciples. And the passover, a feast of
the Jews, was nigh. When Jesus then lifted up his eyes, and
saw a great company come unto him, he saith unto Philip, Whence
shall we buy bread, that these may eat? And this he said to prove
him: for he himself knew what he would do. Philip answered him, Two
hundred pennyworth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every
one of them may take a little.
One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, saith unto him,
There is a lad here, which hath five barley loaves, and two small
fishes: but what are they among so many? And Jesus said, Make the
men sit down. Now there was much grass in the place. So the men sat
down, in number about five thousand. And Jesus took the loaves; and
when he had given thanks, he distributed to the disciples, and the
disciples to them that were set down; and likewise of the fishes as
much as they would. When they were filled, he said unto his
disciples, Gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing be
lost. Therefore they gathered them together, and filled
twelve baskets with the fragments of the five barley loaves, which
remained over and above unto them that had eaten.
Then those men, when they had seen the miracle that Jesus did, said,
This is of a truth that prophet that should come into the world. The
day following, when the people which stood on the other side of the
sea saw that there was none other boat there, save that one
whereinto his disciples were entered, and that Jesus went not with
his disciples into the boat, but that his disciples were gone
away alone; (Howbeit there came other boats from Tiberias nigh unto
the place where they did eat bread, after that the Lord had given
thanks:) When the people therefore saw that Jesus was not there,
neither his disciples, they also took shipping, and came to
Capernaum, seeking for Jesus. And when they had found him on the
other side of the sea, they said unto him, Rabbi, when camest thou
Jesus answered them and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye
seek me, not because ye saw the miracles, but because ye did eat of
the loaves, and were filled. Labour not for the meat which perisheth,
but for that meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which the
Son of man shall give unto you: for him hath God the Father sealed.
Then said they unto him, What shall we do, that we might work the
works of God? Jesus answered and said unto them, This is the work of
God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent. They said therefore
unto him, What sign shewest thou then, that we may see, and believe
thee? what dost thou work? Our fathers did eat manna in the desert;
as it is written, He gave them bread from heaven to eat. Then Jesus
said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not
that bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from
heaven. For the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven,
and giveth life unto the world.
Then said they unto him, Lord, evermore give us this bread. And
Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me
shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me shall never thirst.
But I said unto you, That ye also have seen me, and believe not. All
that the Father giveth me shall come to me; and him that cometh to
me I will in no wise cast out. For I came down from heaven, not to
do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me. And this is the
Father's will which hath sent me, that of all which he hath given me
I should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last day.
And this is the will of him that sent me, that every one which seeth
the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life: and I will
raise him up at the last day. The Jews then murmured at him, because
he said, I am the bread which came down from heaven.
And they said, Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, whose father
and mother we know? how is it then that he saith, I came down from
heaven? Jesus therefore answered and said unto them, Murmur not
among yourselves. No man can come to me, except the Father which
hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day. It
is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God.
Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father,
cometh unto me. Not that any man hath seen the Father, save he which
is of God, he hath seen the Father. Verily, verily, I say unto you,
He that believeth on me hath everlasting life. I am that bread of
life. Your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness, and are dead.
This is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that a man may eat
thereof, and not die. I am the living bread which came down from
heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and
the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the
life of the world. The Jews therefore strove among themselves,
saying, How can this man give us his flesh to eat? Then Jesus
said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the
flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in
you. Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal
life; and I will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is meat
indeed, and my blood is drink indeed. He that eateth my flesh, and
drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him. As the living
Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father: so he that eateth me,
even he shall live by me. This is that bread which came down from
heaven: not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead: he that
eateth of this bread shall live for ever. These things said he in
the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum. Many therefore of his
disciples, when they had heard this, said, This is an hard
saying; who can hear it?" John
how much more abominable is it to make of him and religion a
stalking-horse to get and enjoy the world! nor do we find any other than
heathens, hypocrites, devils, and witches, that are of this opinion.
"1. Heathens, for when Hamor and Shechem had a
mind to the daughter and cattle of Jacob, and saw that there were no
ways for them to come at them, but by becoming circumcised, they say
to their companions: 'If every male of us be circumcised, as they are
circumcised, shall not their cattle, and their substance, and every
beast of theirs be ours?' Their daughters and their cattle were that
which they sought to obtain; and their religion the stalking-horse
they made use of to come at them. Read the whole story.
- "And Hamor and Shechem his
son came unto the gate of their city, and communed with the men of
their city, saying, These men are peaceable with us;
therefore let them dwell in the land, and trade therein; for the
land, behold, it is large enough for them; let us take
their daughters to us for wives, and let us give them our
daughters. Only herein will the men consent unto us for to dwell
with us, to be one people, if every male among us be circumcised,
as they are circumcised. Shall not their cattle and
their substance and every beast of theirs be ours? only let
us consent unto them, and they will dwell with us."
"2. The hypocritical Pharisees were also of this religion; long
prayers were their pretence, but to get widows' houses were their
intent; and greater damnation from God was their judgment.
- "Beware of the scribes,
which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the
markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief
rooms at feasts; Which devour widows' houses, and for a shew make
long prayers: the same shall receive greater damnation." Luke
"3. Judas the devil was also of this religion; he was religious
for the bag, that he might be possessed of what was therein; but he
was lost, cast away, and the very son of perdition.
"4. Simon the witch was of this religion too; for he would have
had the Holy Ghost, that he might have got money therewith and his
sentence from Peter's mouth was according.
- "Saying, Give me also this
power, that on whomsoever I lay hands, he may receive the Holy
Ghost. But Peter said unto him, Thy money perish with thee,
because thou hast thought that the gift of God may be purchased
with money. Thou hast neither part nor lot in this matter: for thy
heart is not right in the sight of God. Repent therefore of this
thy wickedness, and pray God, if perhaps the thought of thine
heart may be forgiven thee."
"5. Neither will it out of my mind, but that the man that takes
up religion for the world will throw away religion for the world; for
so surely as Judas designed the world in becoming religious, so surely
did he also sell religion and his Master for the same. To answer the
question more affirmatively, as I perceive you have done, and to
accept as authentic such answer, is both heathenish, hypocritical, and
devilish; and your reward will be according to your works."
Then they stood staring one upon another, but had not wherewith to
answer CHRISTIAN. HOPEFUL also approved of the soundness of CHRISTIAN'S
answer; so there was a great silence among them. Mr. BY-ENDS and his
company also staggered, and kept behind, that CHRISTIAN and HOPEFUL
might outgo them. Then said CHRISTIAN to his fellow, "If these men
cannot stand before the sentence of men, what will they do with the
sentence of God? and if they are mute when dealt with by vessels of
clay, what will they do when they shall be rebuked by the flames of a
hen CHRISTIAN and
HOPEFUL, outwent them again, and went till they came at a delicate
plain, called Ease, where they went with much content; but that plain
was but narrow, so they were quickly got over it. Now at the further
side of that plain was a little hill called Lucre, and in that hill a
silver mine, which some of them that had formerly gone that way, because
of the rarity of it, had turned aside to see; but going too near the
brink of the pit, the ground being deceitful under them, broke, and they
were slain; some also had been maimed there, and could not to their
dying day be their own men again.
Then I saw in my dream, that a little off the road, over against the
silver mine, stood DEMAS (gentleman-like), to call to passengers to come
and see; who said to CHRISTIAN and his fellow, "Ho, turn aside
hither, and I will show you a thing."
What thing is so deserving as to turn us out of the way to see it?
Here is a silver mine, and some digging in it for treasure; if you will
come, with a little pain you may richly provide for yourselves.
Then said HOPEFUL, "Let us go and see."
"Not I," said CHRISTIAN; "I have heard of this place
before now and how many have there been slain; and besides, that
treasure is a snare to those that seek it, for it hinders them in their
pilgrimage." Then CHRISTIAN called to DEMAS, saying, "Is not
the place dangerous? hath it not hindered many in their
- "For Israel slideth back as a
backsliding heifer: now the LORD will feed them as a lamb in a large
place. Ephraim is joined to idols: let him alone. Their drink
is sour: they have committed whoredom continually: her rulers with
shame do love, Give ye. The wind hath bound her up in her wings, and
they shall be ashamed because of their sacrifices."
"Not very dangerous; except to those that are careless;" but
withal, he blushed as he spake.
Then said CHRISTIAN to HOPEFUL, "Let us not stir a step, but still
keep on our way."
I will warrant you, when BY-ENDS comes up, if he hath the same
invitation as we, he will turn in thither to see.
No doubt thereof, for his principles lead him that way; and a hundred to
one but he dies there.
Then DEMAS called again, saying, "But will you not come over and
Then CHRISTIAN roundly answered, saying, "DEMAS, thou art an enemy
to the right ways of the Lord of this way, and hast been already
condemned for thine own turning aside by one of his Majesty's judges;
and why seekest thou to bring us into the like condemnation?
- "For Demas hath forsaken me,
having loved this present world, and is departed unto Thessalonica;
Crescens to Galatia, Titus unto Dalmatia."
2 Timothy 4:10
Besides, if we at all turn aside, our Lord the King will certainly hear
thereof, and will there put us to shame, where we would stand with
boldness before him."
cried again, That he also was one of their fraternity; and that if they
would tarry a little, he also himself would walk with them.
Then said Christian, "What is thy name? is it not the same by the
which I have called thee?"
Yes, my name is DEMAS; I am the son of Abraham.
I know you; Gehazi was your great-grandfather, and Judas your father,
and you have trod their steps. It is but a devilish prank that thou
usest: thy father was hanged for a traitor; and thou deservest no better
- "But Gehazi, the servant of
Elisha the man of God, said, Behold, my master hath spared Naaman
this Syrian, in not receiving at his hands that which he brought:
but, as the LORD liveth, I will run after him, and take
somewhat of him." 2 Kings 5:20
"Then one of the twelve, called Judas Iscariot, went unto the
chief priests, And said unto them, What will ye give me, and
I will deliver him unto you? And they covenanted with him for thirty
pieces of silver." Matthew 26:14,
"When the morning was come, all the chief priests and elders of
the people took counsel against Jesus to put him to death: And when
they had bound him, they led him away, and delivered him to
Pontius Pilate the governor. Then Judas, which had betrayed him,
when he saw that he was condemned, repented himself, and brought
again the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and elders,
Saying, I have sinned in that I have betrayed the innocent blood.
And they said, What is that to us? see thou to that.
And he cast down the pieces of silver in the temple, and departed,
and went and hanged himself." Matthew
Assure thyself, that when we come to the King, we will tell him of this
Thus they went their way.
By this time BY-ENDS and his companions were come again within sight;
and they at the first beck went over to DEMAS. Now, whether they fell
into the pit by looking over the brink thereof, or whether they went
down to dig, or whether they were smothered in the bottom by the damps
that commonly arise, of these things I am not certain; but this I
observed, that they never were seen again in the way. Then sang
"BY-ENDS and SILVER-DEMAS doth agree;
One calls, the other runs, that he may be
A sharer in his lucre: so these two
Take up in this world, and no farther go."
Remember Lot's Wife
ow I saw that,
just on the other side of this plain, the pilgrims came to a place where
stood an old monument hard by the highway side, at the sight of which
they were both concerned, because of the strangeness of the form
thereof; for it seemed to them as if it had been a woman transformed
into the shape of a pillar. Here, therefore, they stood looking and
looking upon it; but could not for a time tell what they should make
thereof. At last, HOPEFUL espied written above upon the head thereof a
writing in an unusual hand; but he, being no scholar, called to
CHRISTIAN (for he was learned) to see if he could pick out the meaning;
so he came and after a little laying of letters together, he found the
same to be this, "REMEMBER LOT'S WIFE!" So he read it to his
fellow; after which, they both concluded that that was the pillar of
salt into which Lot's wife was turned for her looking back with a
covetous heart when she was going from Sodom for safety,
- "But his wife looked back from
behind him, and she became a pillar of salt."
which sudden and amazing sight gave them occasion of this discourse.
Ah, my brother, this is a seasonable sight; it came opportunely to us
after the invitation which DEMAS gave us to come over to view the hill
Lucre; and had we gone over as he desired us, and as thou wast inclining
to do, my brother, we had, for aught I know, been made ourselves like
this woman, a spectacle for those that shall come after to behold.
I am sorry that I was so foolish, and am made to wonder that I am not
now as Lot's wife; for wherein was the difference 'twixt her sin and
mine? she only looked back, and I had a desire to go and see. Let grace
be adored; and let me be ashamed that ever such a thing should be in
Let us take notice of what we see here, for our help for time to come.
This woman escaped one judgment, for she fell not by the destruction of
Sodom; yet she was destroyed by another--as we see, she is turned into a
pillar of salt.
True; and she may be to us both caution and example: caution, that we
should shun her sin; or a sign of what judgment will overtake such as
shall not be prevented by this caution. So Korah, Dathan, and Abiram,
with the two hundred and fifty men that perished in their sin, did also
become a sign or example to others to beware:
- "And the sons of Eliab; Nemuel,
and Dathan, and Abiram. This is that Dathan and Abiram, which
were famous in the congregation, who strove against Moses and
against Aaron in the company of Korah, when they strove against the
LORD: And the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them up together
with Korah, when that company died, what time the fire devoured two
hundred and fifty men: and they became a sign." Numbers
but above all, I muse at one thing, to wit, how DEMAS and his fellows
can stand so confidently yonder to look for that treasure, which this
woman, but for looking behind her after (for we read not that she
stepped one foot out of the way) was turned into a pillar of salt;
especially since the judgment which overtook her did make her an example
within sight of where they are; for they cannot choose but see her, did
they but lift up their eyes.
It is a thing to be wondered at, and it argues that their hearts are
grown desperate in the case; and I cannot tell who to compare them to so
fitly as to them that pick pockets in the presence of the judge, or that
will cut purses under the gallows. It is said of the men of Sodom, that
they were sinners exceedingly,
- "And Lot lifted up his eyes,
and beheld all the plain of Jordan, that it was well watered
every where, before the LORD destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, even
as the garden of the LORD, like the land of Egypt, as thou comest
unto Zoar." Genesis 13:10
"But the men of Sodom were wicked and sinners before the
LORD exceedingly." Genesis 13:13
because they were sinners "before the Lord," --that is, in his
eyesight; and notwithstanding the kindness that he had showed them, for
the land of Sodom was now like the Garden of Eden heretofore. This,
therefore, provoked him the more to jealousy; and made their plague as
hot as the fire of the Lord out of heaven could make it. And it is most
rationally to be concluded, that such, even such as these are, that
shall sin in the sight, yea, and that too in despite of such examples
that are set continually before them, to caution them to the contrary,
must be partakers of severest judgments.
Doubtless thou hast said the truth: but what a mercy is it that neither
thou, but especially I, am not made myself this example! this ministers
occasion to us to thank God; to fear before him; and always to
"remember Lot's wife."
saw then that
they went on their way to a pleasant river, which David the king
called "the River of God;" but John, "the River of the
water of life".
- "Thou visitest the earth, and
waterest it: thou greatly enrichest it with the river of God, which
is full of water: thou preparest them corn, when thou hast so
provided for it." Psalm 65:9
"And he shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as
crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb. In the
midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was
there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of
fruits, and yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of
the tree were for the healing of the nations." Revelation
"Afterward he brought me again unto the door of the house; and,
behold, waters issued out from under the threshold of the house
eastward: for the forefront of the house stood toward the
east, and the waters came down from under from the right side of the
house, at the south side of the altar. Then brought he me out
of the way of the gate northward, and led me about the way without
unto the utter gate by the way that looketh eastward; and, behold,
there ran out waters on the right side. And when the man that had
the line in his hand went forth eastward, he measured a thousand
cubits, and he brought me through the waters; the waters were
to the ankles.
Again he measured a thousand, and brought me through the waters; the
waters were to the knees. Again he measured a thousand, and
brought me through; the waters were to the loins. Afterward
he measured a thousand; and it was a river that I could not
pass over: for the waters were risen, waters to swim in, a river
that could not be passed over. And he said unto me, Son of man, hast
thou seen this? Then he brought me, and caused me to return
to the brink of the river. Now when I had returned, behold, at the
bank of the river were very many trees on the one side and on
Then said he unto me, These waters issue out toward the east
country, and go down into the desert, and go into the sea: which
being brought forth into the sea, the waters shall be healed.
And it shall come to pass, that every thing that liveth,
which moveth, whithersoever the rivers shall come, shall live: and
there shall be a very great multitude of fish, because these waters
shall come thither: for they shall be healed; and every thing shall
live whither the river cometh. And it shall come to pass, that
the fishers shall stand upon it from Engedi even unto Eneglaim; they
shall be a place to spread forth nets; their fish shall be
according to their kinds, as the fish of the great sea, exceeding
But the miry places thereof and the marishes thereof shall not be
healed; they shall be given to salt. And by the river upon the bank
thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow all trees for
meat, whose leaf shall not fade, neither shall the fruit thereof be
consumed: it shall bring forth new fruit according to his months,
because their waters they issued out of the sanctuary: and the fruit
thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof for medicine."
Now their way lay just upon the bank of the river: here, therefore,
CHRISTIAN and his companion walked with great delight; they drank also
of the water of the river, which was pleasant and enlivening to their
weary spirits: besides, on the banks of this river, on either side, were
green trees, that bore all manner of fruit; and the leaves of the trees
were good for medicine; with the fruit of these trees they were also
much delighted; and the leaves they ate to prevent surfeits, and other
diseases that are incident to those that heat their blood by travels. On
either side of the river was also a meadow, curiously beautiful with
lilies; and it was green all the year long. In this meadow they lay down
and slept; for here they might lie down safely.
- "The LORD is my
shepherd; I shall not want. He maketh me to lie down in green
pastures: he leadeth me beside the still waters. He restoreth my
soul: he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name's
sake." Psalm 23:1-3
"And the firstborn of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall
lie down in safety: and I will kill thy root with famine, and he
shall slay thy remnant." Isaiah
When they awoke, they gathered again of the fruit of the trees, and
drank again of the water of the river; and then lay down again to sleep.
Thus they did several days and nights. Then they sang:
"Behold ye how these crystal streams do glide,
To comfort pilgrims, by the highway side;
The meadows green, besides their fragrant smell,
Yield dainties for them: and he that can tell
What pleasant fruit, yea, leaves, these trees do yield,
Will soon sell all, that he may buy this field."
So when they were disposed to go on--for they were not, as yet, at their
journey's end--they ate and drank, and departed.
ow I beheld in my
dream, that they had not journeyed far but the river and the way for
a time parted. At which they were not a little sorry; yet they durst not
go out of the way. Now the way from the river was rough, and their feet
tender by reason of their travels; so the souls of the pilgrims were
much discouraged because of the way:
- "And they journeyed from mount
Hor by the way of the Red sea, to compass the land of Edom: and the
soul of the people was much discouraged because of the way."
wherefore, still as they went on, they wished for a better way. Now a
little before them, there was on the left hand of the road a meadow, and
a stile to go over into it; and that meadow is called "By-path
Meadow." Then said CHRISTIAN to his fellow, "If this meadow
lies along by our wayside, let us go over into it." Then he went to
the stile to see; and behold a path lay along by the way on the other
side of the fence. "'Tis according to my wish," said
CHRISTIAN; "here is the easiest going; come, good HOPEFUL, and let
us go over."
But how if this path should lead us out of the way?
"That's not like," said the other; "look, doth it not go
along by the wayside?" So HOPEFUL, being persuaded by his fellow,
went after him over the stile. When they were going over, and were got
into the path, they found it very easy for their feet; and withal, they
looking before them, espied a man walking as they did (and his name was
VAIN-CONFIDENCE.); so they called after him, and asked him whither that
way led? He said, "To the Celestial Gate." "Look,"
said CHRISTIAN, "did not I tell you so? By this you may see we are
right." So they followed; and he went before them. But behold, the
night came on, and it grew very dark; so that they that were behind lost
the sight of him that went before.
He therefore that went before (VAIN-CONFIDENCE by name), not seeing the
way before him, fell into a deep pit,
- "For the leaders of this
people cause them to err; and they that are led of
them are destroyed." Isaiah
which was on purpose there made by the prince of those grounds, to catch
vain-glorious fools withal, and was dashed in pieces with his fall.
Now CHRISTIAN and his fellow heard him fall. So they called, to know the
matter; but there was none to answer--only they heard a groaning. Then
said HOPEFUL, "Where are we now?" Then was his fellow silent,
as mistrusting that he had led him out of the way. And now it began to
rain, and thunder, and lighten in a dreadful manner; and the water rose
Then HOPEFUL groaned in himself, saying, "Oh that I had kept on my
Who could have thought that this path should have led us out of the way!
I was afraid of it at the very first; and therefore gave you that gentle
caution. I would have spoken plainer, but that you are older than I.
Good brother, be not offended; I am sorry I have brought thee out of the
way, and that I have put thee into such imminent danger. Pray, my
brother, forgive me; I did not do it of an evil intent.
Be comforted, my brother, for I forgive thee; and believe, too, that
this shall be for our good.
I am glad I have with me a merciful brother. But we must not stand thus;
let us try to go back again.
But, good brother, let me go before.
No, if you please, let me go first; that if there be any danger, I may
be first therein: because by my means we are both gone out of the way.
"No," said HOPEFUL, "you shall not go first; for your
mind being troubled, may lead you out of the way again." Then, for
their encouragement, they heard the voice of one saying, "Set thine
heart toward the highway, even the way that thou wentest; turn
- "Set thee up waymarks, make
thee high heaps: set thine heart toward the highway, even the
way which thou wentest: turn again, O virgin of Israel, turn
again to these thy cities."
But by this time the waters were greatly risen; by reason of which the
way of going back was very dangerous. (Then I thought that it is easier
going out of the way when we are in, than going in when we are out.) Yet
they adventured to go back; but it was so dark, and the flood was so
high, that in their going back, they had like to have been drowned nine
or ten times.
either could they,
with all the skill they had, get again to the stile that night.
Wherefore, at last, lighting under a little shelter, they sat down there
till the day brake; but being weary, they fell asleep. Now there was not
far from the place where they lay, a castle, called "Doubting
Castle," the owner whereof was GIANT DESPAIR, and it was in his
grounds they were now sleeping; wherefore, he getting up in the morning
early, and walking up and down in his fields, caught CHRISTIAN and
HOPEFUL asleep in his grounds. Then, with a grim and surly voice, he
bade them awake; and asked them whence they were, and what they did in
his grounds. They told him they were pilgrims; and that they had lost
Then said the Giant, "You have this night trespassed on me, by
trampling in and lying on my grounds; and therefore you must go along
with me." So they were forced to go, because he was stronger than
they. They also had but little to say; for they knew themselves in a
fault. The giant, therefore, drove them before him, and put them into
his castle, into a very dark dungeon, nasty and stinking to the spirit
of these two men.
- "Lover and friend hast thou
put far from me, and mine acquaintance into darkness." Psalm
Here then they lay, from Wednesday morning till Saturday night, without
one bit of bread, or drop of drink, or any light, or any to ask how they
did. They were, therefore, here in evil case; and were far from friends
and acquaintance. Now in this place CHRISTIAN had double sorrow; because
't was through his unadvised counsel that they were brought into this
Now Giant DESPAIR had a wife, and her name was DIFFIDENCE; so when he
was gone to bed, he told his wife what he had done, to wit, that he had
taken a couple of prisoners, and cast them into his dungeon, for
trespassing on his grounds. Then he asked her also what he had best to
do further to them. So she asked him what they were; whence they came;
and whither they were bound: and he told her. Then she counselled him,
that when he arose in the morning he should beat them without any mercy:
so when he arose, he gets him a grievous crab tree cudgel, and goes down
into the dungeon to them,
and there first falls to rating of them as if they
were dogs, although they gave him never a word of distaste; then he
falls upon them, and beats them fearfully, in such sort, that they were
not able to help themselves, or to turn them upon the floor. This done,
he withdraws and leaves them, there to condole their misery, and to
mourn under their distress; so all that day they spent the time in
nothing but sighs and bitter lamentations. The next night, she talking
with her husband about them further, and understanding that they were
yet alive, did advise him to counsel them to make away with themselves.
So when morning was come, he goes to them in a surly manner, as before;
and perceiving them to be very sore with the stripes that he had given
them the day before, he told them that since they were never like to
come out of that place, their only way would be, forthwith to make an
end of themselves, either with knife, halter, or poison: "For
why," said he, "should you choose life, seeing it is attended
with so much bitterness?" But they desired him to let them go; with
that he looked ugly upon them, and rushing to them, had doubtless made
an end of them himself, but that he fell into one of his fits; for he
sometimes in sunshine weather fell into fits, and lost (for a time) the
use of his hand; wherefore he withdrew, and left them (as before) to
consider what to do. Then did the prisoners consult between themselves,
whether 't was best to take his counsel or not: and thus they began to
"Brother," said CHRISTIAN, "what shall we do? the life
that we now live is miserable: for my part I know not whether is
best--to live thus, or to die out of hand. 'My soul chooses strangling
rather than life';
- "So that my soul chooseth
strangling, and death rather than my life."
and the grave is more easy for me than this dungeon. Shall we be ruled
by the Giant?"
Indeed our present condition is dreadful, and death would be far more
welcome to me than thus for ever to abide; but yet let us consider, the
Lord of the country to which we are going hath said, "Thou shalt do
no murder," no, not to another man's person. Much more, then, are
we forbidden to take his counsel to kill ourselves. Besides, he that
kills another can but commit murder upon his body; but for one to kill
himself, is to kill body and soul at once. And, moreover, my brother,
thou talkest of ease in the grave; but hast thou forgotten the hell,
whither for certain the murderers go? "for no murderer hath eternal
life." And let us consider again, that all the law is not in the
hand of Giant DESPAIR; others, so far as I can understand, have been
taken by him as well as we, and yet have escaped out of his hand: who
knows but that God who made the world may cause that Giant DESPAIR may
die that, at some time or other, he may forget to lock us in?--or, but
he may in a short time have another of his fits before us, and may lose
the use of his limbs? And if ever that should come to pass again, for my
part I am resolved to pluck up the heart of a man, and to try my utmost
to get from under his hand. I was a fool that I did not try to do it
before; but however, my brother, let us be patient, and endure awhile;
the time may come that may give us a happy release; but let us not be
our own murderers.
With these words HOPEFUL at present did moderate the mind of his
brother; so they continued together (in the dark) that day, in their sad
and doleful condition.
Well, towards evening, the Giant went down into the dungeon again, to
see if his prisoners had taken his counsel. But when he came there, he
found them alive; and truly, alive was all: for now, what for want of
bread and water, and by reason of the wounds they received when he beat
them, they could do little but breathe. But I say, he found them alive;
at which he fell into a grievous rage, and told them that, seeing they
had disobeyed his counsel, it should be worse with them than if they had
never been born.
At this they trembled greatly; and I think that CHRISTIAN fell into a
swoon; but coming a little to himself again, they renewed their
discourse about the Giant's counsel, and whether yet they had best to
take it or not. Now CHRISTIAN again seemed to be for doing it; but
HOPEFUL made his second reply, as follows:
"My brother," said he, "rememberest thou not how valiant
thou hast been heretofore? APOLLYON could not crush thee; nor could all
that thou didst hear, or see, or feel, in the Valley of the Shadow of
Death. What hardship, terror, and amazement, hast thou already gone
through--and art thou now nothing but fear? Thou seest that I am in the
dungeon with thee, a far weaker man by nature than thou art! Also, this
Giant has wounded me as well as thee, and hath also cut off the bread
and water from my mouth; and with thee I mourn without the light: but
let us exercise a little more patience. Remember how thou playedst the
man at Vanity Fair, and wast neither afraid of the chain nor cage, nor
yet of bloody death; wherefore let us--at least to avoid the shame that
becomes not a Christian to be found in--bear up with patience as well as
Now night being come again, and the Giant and his wife being in bed, she
asked him concerning the prisoners; and if they had taken his counsel?
To which he replied, "They are sturdy rogues; they choose rather to
bear all hardship than to make away with themselves." Then said
she, "Take them into the castle yard tomorrow, and show them the
bones and skulls of those that thou hast already dispatched; and make
them believe, ere a week comes to an end, thou also wilt tear them in
pieces, as thou hast done their fellows before them."
So when the morning was come, the Giant went to them
again, and took them into the castle yard, and showed them as his wife
had bidden him. "These," said he, "were pilgrims as you
are, once, and they trespassed' in my grounds, as you have done; and
when I thought fit, I tore them in pieces; and so within ten days I will
do to you: go, get you down to your den again!" And with that he
beat them all the way thither. They lay, therefore, all day on Saturday
in a lamentable case, as before. Now when night was come, and when Mrs.
DIFFIDENCE, and her husband the Giant, were got to bed, they began to
renew the discourse of their prisoners; and withal the old Giant
wondered that he could neither by his blows nor counsel bring them to an
end. And with that his wife replied: "I fear," said she,
"that they live in hope that some will come to relieve them; or
that they have picklocks about them; by the means of which they hope to
escape." "And sayest thou so, my dear?" said the Giant;
"I will therefore search them in the morning."
Well, on Saturday, about midnight the pilgrims began to pray; and
continued in prayer till almost break of day.
Now a little before it was day, good CHRISTIAN, as one
half amazed, break out in this passionate speech: "What a
fool," quoth he, "am I, thus to lie in a stinking dungeon,
when I may as well walk at liberty! I have a key in my bosom called
Promise; that will, I am persuaded, open any lock in Doubting
Castle." Then said HOPEFUL, "That's good news; good brother,
pluck it out of thy bosom, and try."
Then CHRISTIAN pulled it out of his bosom, and began to try at the
dungeon door; whose bolt (as he turned the key) gave back, and the door
flew open with ease: and CHRISTIAN and HOPEFUL both came out. Then he
went to the outward door that led into the castle yard; and with his key
opened that door also. After, he went to the iron gate, for that must be
opened too; but that lock went exceedingly hard: yet the key did open
it. Then they thrust open the gate to make their escape with speed; but
that gate, as it opened, made such a creaking, that it waked Giant
who, hastily rising to pursue his prisoners, felt his
limbs to fail, for his fits took him again, so that he could by no means
go after them. Then they went on, and came to the king's highway again;
and so were safe, because they were out of his jurisdiction.
Now when they were gone over the stile, they began to contrive with
themselves what they should do at that stile, to prevent those that
should come after from falling into the hands of Giant DESPAIR. So they
consented to erect there a pillar, and to engrave upon the side thereof
this sentence: "Over this stile is the way to Doubting Castle;
which is kept by Giant DESPAIR, who despises the King of the Celestial
Country, and seeks to destroy his holy pilgrims." Many, therefore,
that followed after, read what was written, and escaped the danger. This
done, they sang as follows:
"Out of the way we went; and then we found
What 't was to tread upon forbidden ground:
And let them that come after have a care,
Lest heedlessness makes them, as we to fare;
Lest they, for trespassing, his prisoners are,
Whose castle's 'Doubting' and whose name's DESPAIR."